Lord of the Sabbath (Lk 6:5-6:5)

“Then Jesus said to them.

‘The Son of Man is

Lord of the Sabbath.’”

 

καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus then said to them (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) is Lord of the Sabbath (Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 12:8, and Mark, chapter 2:28, probably indicating that Mark was the source of this comment.  However, the other 2 gospels had more elaboration.  Mark had Jesus say to those around him that the Sabbath was made for man, humans, or mankind, not humans for the Sabbath.  Then he added the comment that is here in Luke that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath, which was picked up by the other two synoptic gospels.  Matthew had Jesus begin with a solemn proclamation that someone greater than the Temple was here, a clear reference to Jesus himself.  They did not know what the saying about mercy was all about.  Matthew then used the same citation of Hosea chapter 6:6, that he had earlier in chapter 9:13.  Jesus explained that he desired mercy, just as Yahweh wanted real faithful love, not mere sacrifices.  Hosea wanted the Israelites to have real knowledge of God, rather than worry about burnt offerings.  Thus, the Pharisees should not have condemned the innocent or guiltless ones, since Jesus and his disciples had done nothing wrong.  He then concluded with the saying that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath.  Jesus then could control the Sabbath, not the other way around.  Instead of the Sabbath as a gift to humans, Jesus would reinterpret the laws of the Sabbath as the Lord of the Sabbath.

The shamed Israelites (Jer 2:33-2:37)

“How well you direct your course

To seek lovers!

So that even to wicked women

You have taught your ways.

Also on your skirts is found

The lifeblood of the innocent poor.

You did not catch them breaking in.

Yet in spite of all these things,

You say.

‘I am innocent.

Surely his anger has turned from me.’

Now I am bringing you to judgment

For saying.

‘I have not sinned.’

How lightly you gad about

Changing your ways!

You shall be put to shame by Egypt

As you were put to shame by Assyria!

From there also

You will come away

With your hands

Upon your head.

Yahweh has rejected those

In whom you trust.

You will not prosper through them.”

The Israelites were seeking new lovers. They were teaching them their ways. They seem not to care about the innocent poor people, since they had their blood on their skirts. Yet they continued to proclaim their innocence. They thought that Yahweh was no longer angry with them. However, Yahweh was going to bring judgment upon them for saying that they had not sinned. They keep gadding about on their frivolous ways.   They were going to be put to shame by Egypt and Assyria so that they would walk out with their hands on their heads as prisoners. Yahweh has rejected them and their leaders so that they would not prosper.

A reproach against bribery (Isa 5:23-5:24)

“Woe to you

Who acquit the guilty

For a bribe!

Woe to you

Who deprive the innocent

Of their rights!

Therefore,

As the tongue of fire

Devours the stubble,

So their roots will become rotten.

As dry grass sinks down

In the flame,

So their blossoms will go up

Like dust.

They have rejected

The instruction of Yahweh of hosts.

They have despised

The word of the Holy One of Israel.”

However, the real scolding comes when judges acquit a guilty person because of a bribe. They thus deprive the innocent ones of their rights. They are going to end up like stubble and dry grass devoured by a fire. Their roots will become rotten. Their blossoms will be blown off like dust. They have rejected Yahweh. They have despised the word of the Holy One of Israel. Injustice is a real big deal.

The sinfulness at Jerusalem (Isa 3:9-3:11)

“The look on their faces

Bears witnesses against them.

They proclaim their sin

Like Sodom.

They do not hide it.

Woe to them!

They have brought evil

Upon themselves.

Tell the innocent

How fortunate they are.

They shall eat

The fruit of their labors.

Woe to the guilty!

How unfortunate they are.

What their hands have done

Shall be done to them.”

Now Isaiah makes a reference to Jerusalem as being a sinning town like Sodom, the famous sinning place in Genesis, chapters 18-19, which seems to be ingrained in Israelite life. They were bluntly proclaiming their sinfulness, not hiding it, since the look on their faces gave them away. They will experience woe because they have brought this evil upon themselves. On the other hand, the innocent are fortunate because they will enjoy the results of their labors. The guilty are unfortunate because what they did with their hands will be done to them. Clearly, there was a sense of retributive justice.

Words of a fool (Prov 18:4-18: 8)

“The words of the mouth are deep waters.

The fountain of wisdom is a gushing stream.

It is not right

To be partial to the guilty.

It is not right

To subvert the innocent in judgment.

A fool’s lips

Bring strife.

A fool’s mouth

Invites a flogging.

A fool’s mouth

Is their ruin.

A fool’s lips

Are snares to themselves.

The words of a whisperer

Are like delicious morsels.

They go down into the inner parts of the body.”

The words that come out of one’s mouth are like deep waters. Wisdom is like a gushing fountain. You should not favor the guilty or subvert the innocent with bad judgments. The lips of fools bring strife. Their mouths invite a whipping. Precisely the mouth of the fool is the cause of his ruin. Their lips snare themselves. They get caught in their own foolish words. However, the words of the deceptive ones who whisper in your ear are like delicious treats that go down into the inner parts of your body and ruin your body.

The foolish children (Prov 17:21-17:28)

“The one who begets a fool gets trouble.

The parent of a fool has no joy.

A cheerful heart is a good medicine.

But a downcast spirit dries up the bones.

The wicked accept a concealed bribe.

They pervert the ways of justice.

The discerning person looks to wisdom.

But the eyes of a fool look to the ends of the earth.

Foolish children are

A grief to their father.

Foolish children are

Bitterness to her who bore them.

To impose a fine on the innocent

Is not right.

To flog the noble for their integrity

Is not right.

Whoever spares words is knowledgeable.

Whoever is cool in spirit has understanding.

Even fools who keep silent

Are considered wise.

When they closes their lips,

They are deemed intelligent.”

Foolish children are trouble. There is no joy in dealing with them. A cheerful heart is good medicine for you, while a downcast spirit will dry up your bones. The wicked judges, when they accept a concealed bribe, are perverting justice. A discerning person looks for wisdom, but fools try to go to the ends of the earth in search of something or other. Foolish children are a grief to their father and bitterness to their mother. You should not impose a fine on the innocent ones. You should not flog the noblemen for their integrity. If you do not speak too much you give the impression of being knowledgeable. If you appear cool, people assume you understand things. Thus even fools who keep silent are sometimes considered wise. Some people appear to be more intelligent when they never open their mouth or move their lips.

Yahweh will help defeat the wicked (Ps 94:16-90:23)

“Who rises up for me against the wicked?

Who stands up for me against evildoers?

If Yahweh had not been my help,

My soul would soon have lived

In the land of silence.

When I thought.

‘My foot slips,’

Your steadfast love held me up.

Yahweh!

When the cares of my heart are many,

Your consolations cheer my soul.

Can wicked rulers be allied with you?

Who are those who contrive mischief by statute?

They band together against the life of the righteous.

They condemn the innocent to death.

But Yahweh has become my stronghold.

Yahweh is my God.

Yahweh is the rock of my refuge.

He will repay them for their iniquity.

He will wipe them out for their wickedness.

Yahweh!

Our God will wipe them out.”

This psalm concludes with the psalmist not worried. Yahweh has already helped him, keeping him from falling. He has risen up against the wicked and the evildoers. He was the consolation of his heart. The evildoers and the wicked joined together to condemn the innocent. However, his God, Yahweh, had repaid them because of their wickedness. They will be wiped out because Yahweh is the rock of his refuge, the stronghold for this psalmist.