Pharisees come to Jesus (Lk 5:17-5:17)

“One day,

While Jesus

Was teaching,

Pharisees

And teachers of the law

Were sitting nearby.

They had come

From every village

Of Galilee,

Judea,

And Jerusalem.

The power

Of the Lord

Was with Jesus

To heal.”

 

Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διδάσκων, καὶ ἦσαν καθήμενοι Φαρισαῖοι καὶ νομοδιδάσκαλοι οἳ ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες ἐκ πάσης κώμης τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ Ἰουδαίας καὶ Ἱερουσαλήμ· καὶ δύναμις Κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι αὐτόν.

 

Luke said that one day (Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν), while Jesus was teaching (καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διδάσκων), Pharisees (Φαρισαῖοι) and teachers of the law (καὶ νομοδιδάσκαλοι), perhaps Scribes, were sitting nearby (καὶ ἦσαν καθήμενοι).  Apparently, they had come (οἳ ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες) from every village of Galilee (ἐκ πάσης κώμης τῆς Γαλιλαίας), Judea (καὶ Ἰουδαίας), and Jerusalem (καὶ Ἱερουσαλήμ).  This was a large gathering of Pharisees.  On that day, the power of the Lord was with Jesus to heal people (καὶ δύναμις Κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι αὐτόν).  Matthew, chapter 9:1, had Jesus return to his home in Capernaum, after a boat trip on the Sea of Galilee.  Mark, chapter 2:1, said that when Jesus returned to Capernaum, after some days on the road, people heard that he was at home in his house.  Thus, Capernaum, according to Matthew, had become his own home town, while Mark mentioned that he was in his house or home in Capernaum.  Luke did not explicitly mention Capernaum.  However, neither Mark or Matthew mentioned any gathering of Pharisees and Scribes, like Luke did here.

The first laborers hired (Mt 20:2-20:2)

“He agreed

With the laborers

For the usual daily wage.

He sent them

Into his vineyard.”

 

συμφωνήσας δὲ μετὰ τῶν ἐργατῶν ἐκ δηναρίου τὴν ἡμέραν ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα αὐτοῦ.

 

This parable is unique to Matthew.  Jesus continued with his parable.  This land owner hired the first group of day laborers.  They came to a mutual understanding.  This land owner agreed and the day laborers also agreed to accept one denarius as payment for that day, the usual or common wage for a day’s work (συμφωνήσας δὲ μετὰ τῶν ἐργατῶν ἐκ δηναρίου τὴν ἡμέραν).  This Roman silver coin was worth about $.15 USA.  They would work all day for about 15 cents.  Then he sent them into his vineyard to pick the grapes (ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα αὐτοῦ).  So far, so good, nothing unusual here.  A land owner and some workers agreed on a day’s pay that was not extravagant, without any middle man.

Evildoers (Mt 7:22-7:23)

“On that day,

Many will say to me.

‘Lord!

Lord!

Did we not prophesy

In your name?

Did we not cast out demons

In your name?

Did we not do many marvelous works

In your name?’

Then I will declare

To them.

‘I never knew you!

Go away from me!

You evildoers!’”

 

πολλοὶ ἐροῦσίν μοι ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ Κύριε, οὐ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι ἐπροφητεύσαμεν, καὶ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι δαιμόνια ἐξεβάλομεν, καὶ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι δυνάμεις πολλὰς ἐποιήσαμεν;

καὶ τότε ὁμολογήσω αὐτοῖς ὅτι Οὐδέποτε ἔγνων ὑμᾶς· ἀποχωρεῖτε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ οἱ ἐργαζόμενοι τὴν ἀνομίαν

 

This verse is somewhat similar to Luke, chapter 13:26-27.  Matthew has Jesus say that on that day (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ), the judgment day, many would say to him (πολλοὶ ἐροῦσίν μοι), Lord! Lord (Κύριε Κύριε)!  Did we not prophesize in your name (οὐ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι ἐπροφητεύσαμεν)?  Did we not cast out demons in your name (καὶ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι δαιμόνια ἐξεβάλομεν)?  Did we not do many great marvelous works in your name (καὶ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι δυνάμεις πολλὰς ἐποιήσαμεν)?  Then Jesus was going to declare to them (καὶ τότε ὁμολογήσω αὐτοῖς) that he never knew them (καὶ τότε ὁμολογήσω αὐτοῖς), because they were evildoers.  Just as David had told the evildoers to depart in Psalm 6:13, Jesus wanted these evildoers (οἱ ἐργαζόμενοι τὴν ἀνομίαν) to leave him alone (ἀποχωρεῖτε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ).  Who are these evil doers?  They seem like disciples of Jesus, since they prophesized, cast out demons, and did marvelous works in the name of Jesus.  What evil had they done to make them unworthy on the final judgment day?  This text is not clear.

Yahweh’s people (Mal 3:17-3:18)

“Says Yahweh of hosts.

‘They shall be mine.

They shall be

My special possession

On the day

When I act.

I will spare them,

As parents

Spare their children

Who serve them.

Then once more,

You shall see

The difference

Between the righteous

And the wicked,

Between one who serves God

And one who does not serve him.’”

Yahweh of hosts, via Malachi, said that the righteous would be his possession on the day when he acted.  He would spare them, just as parents spare their children.  Then on that day, they would once again see the difference between the righteous and the wicked, between those who served God and those who did not.

Get rid of idols (Zech 13:2-13:2)

“Says Yahweh of hosts.

‘On that day,

I will cut off

The names

Of the idols

From the land.

Thus,

They shall be remembered

No more.

Also,

I will remove

From the land

The prophets.

I will remove

From the land

The unclean spirit.’”

Yahweh spoke directly to Zechariah.  On that day to come, he was going to cut off the names of the various idols in the land.  Thus, no one would remember them anymore.  He also was going to remove the prophets and unclean spirits.  This will be the end of institutional prophets.

The breaking of the staff of favor (Zech 11:10-11:11)

“I took my staff,

Favor.

I broke it.

I annulling the covenant

That I had made

With all the people.

So,

It was annulled

On that day.

The sheep merchants,

Who were watching me,

Knew that it was

The word of Yahweh.”

Zechariah took his staff named favor, grace, or beauty.  Then he broke it.  By this, on that day, he annulled the covenant that had been made with his people.  Meanwhile, the sheep merchants were watching him.  They realized that this was truly the word of Yahweh.

Yahweh will dwell in their midst (Zech 2:10-2:12)

“‘Sing!

Rejoice!

O daughter Zion!

Look!

I come!

I will dwell

In your midst.’

Says Yahweh.

Many nations

Shall join themselves

To Yahweh

In that day.

‘They shall be my people.

I will dwell

In your midst.’

You shall know

That Yahweh of hosts

Has sent me to you.

Yahweh will inherit Judah

As his portion

In the holy land.

He will again choose

Jerusalem.”

Yahweh wanted daughter Zion to sing and rejoice.  He was going to come to dwell in their midst, among them.  Many nations or people from many different countries would join with Yahweh on that day.  Yahweh said that they would be his people.  He was going to live among them.  Yahweh would inherit Judah, since he had sent his prophet to his Holy Land.  This was the first use of this term that was later used in 2 Maccabees, chapter 1.  Yahweh had chosen Jerusalem again.