The Israelites will possess the neighboring lands (Ob 1:19-1:21)

“Those of the Negeb

Shall possess

Mount Esau.

Those of the Shephelah,

The land of the Philistines,

Shall possess

The land of Ephraim

With the land of Samaria.

Benjamin

Shall possess Gilead.

The exiles

Of the Israelites

Who are in Halah,

Shall possess

Phoenicia

As far as Zarephath.

The exiles of Jerusalem

Who are in Sepharad

Shall possess

The towns

Of the Negeb.

Those who have been saved

Shall go up

To Mount Zion

To rule Mount Esau.

The kingdom

Shall be Yahweh’s.”

This short chapter and book ends and a new larger Israel, as their long standing enemy neighbors will no longer exist.  Israel shall rule them.  The area of the Negeb was the arid southern land that would change from the land of Edom or Mount Esau into Israel.  Israel was going to possess the Shephelah, the western area along the Mediterranean coast where the Philistines lived.  They were also going to have the land of Samaria and the territory of Ephraim, north of Judah.  The territory of Benjamin would include land on the east side of the Jordan River, the Gilead.  The exiled Israelites in Halah in the upper Mesopotamia region and those in the Phoenician town of Zarephath, as well as the exiles in Asia Minor in Shephard would all return to live in the arid southern Negeb region.  All the saved Israelites would return to Mount Zion, as Mount Esau and all of Edom would go away and be under the Israelites.

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The punishment of Gibeah (Hos 10:9-10:10)

“Since the days of Gibeah,

You have sinned!

O Israel!

There they have continued.

Shall not war overtake them

In Gibeah?

I will come

Against the wayward people

To punish them.

Nations shall be gathered

Against them,

When they are punished

For their double iniquity.”

Gibeah was just north of Jerusalem in the territory of Benjamin. The first battle of Gibeah was at the time of the Judges, chapters 19-21. The men of Gibeah raped the wife of an Ephraim Levite. However, he got the other tribes of Israel to attack the people of Benjamin. Finally, the Israelites were successful in defeating the people of Gibeah, in the territory of Benjamin. Clearly, the men of Gibeah had sinned. So, had Israel. Thus, the Israelites were successful. Now it looks like there would be another fight against Gibeah that was once destroyed. They would be punished again for their double iniquity, since they had raped 2 women. They also would not turn over the men who did this.

The approach of the Assyrians (Isa 10:27-10:32)

“He has gone up from Rimmon.

He has come to Aiath.

He has passed through Migron.

At Michmash he stores his baggage.

They have crossed over the pass.

They lodge for the night at Geba.

Ramah trembles.

Gibeah of Saul has fled.

Cry aloud!

O daughter of Gallim!

Listen!

O Laishah!

Answer her!

O Anathoth!

Madmenah is in flight.

The inhabitants of Gebim flee for safety.

This very day,

He will halt at Nob.

He will shake his fist

At the mount of daughter Zion,

The hill of Jerusalem.”

The invaders of Assyria come from the north, as these are all northern towns in the territory of Benjamin, which is just north of Judah. Nob was near the Mount of Olives, so that it was the closest town to Jerusalem. Apparently there he was going to shake his fist at Mount Zion. This seems like a movement of troops knocking off small towns along the way to Jerusalem. This is probably a reference to the unsuccessful attack of King Sennacherib (705-681 BCE), of Assyria, around 701 BCE on Jerusalem.  Indications about this story can be found in 2 Kings, chapters 18-19, and 2 Chronicles, chapter 32, as well as an Assyrian cuneiform prism dating from the 7th century BCE.