Jesus taught in the synagogues (Lk 4:15-4:15)

“He began

To teach

In their synagogues.

He was praised

By everyone.”

 

καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδίδασκεν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν, δοξαζόμενος ὑπὸ πάντων.

 

Luke said that Jesus began to teach (καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδίδασκεν) in their synagogues (ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν).  This is a unique statement of Luke, but the idea was present in the other gospel stories.  Matthew mentioned synagogues 9 times, in chapters 4:23, 6:2, 6:5, 9:35, 10:17, 12:9, 13:54, 23:6, and 23:34, while Mark mentioned them 11 times, in chapters 1:21, 1:23, 1:29, 1:39, 3:1, 5:22, 5:36, 5:38, 12:38, 12:39, and 13:9.  The synagogue was a new developing Jewish established gathering place.  An assembly of Jewish people might take place in a building, since some places may not have been able to afford a special multi-purpose building.  Synagogues were a new thing in the first century BCE, becoming something like a local Jewish town hall meeting place as a center of study and worship, obviously outside of Jerusalem and its Temple.  There may have been some sort of Sabbath worship taking place there with readings from the Torah and the prophets, with perhaps a sermon or explanation.  Jesus with his disciples went there, which would not have been unusual.  However, the fact that he taught there might seem a little strange, if he was not invited.  However, Luke said that Jesus was praised or glorified by everyone (δοξαζόμενος ὑπὸ πάντων).

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Jerusalem (Lk 4:9-4:9)

“Then the devil

Took Jesus

To Jerusalem.

He placed him

On the pinnacle

Of the Temple.

He said to him.

‘If you are

The Son of God,

Throw yourself down

From here!’”

 

Ἤγαγεν δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἔστησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ, καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω·

 

There is a difference between Matthew, chapter 4:5 and Luke here, since Luke has this temptation as the last temptation, not the second one.  However, the wording is nearly the same, indicating a shared common source.  Luke said that the devil took or led Jesus to Jerusalem (Ἤγαγεν δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ).  He placed or set him on the pinnacle of the Temple (καὶ ἔστησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ).  He said to Jesus (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ).  If he was the Son of God (Εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ), he could throw or cast himself down from there (βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω).  This devil took Jesus to the holy city of Jerusalem, where he placed Jesus on the top of the Temple.  Once again, the devil said that if Jesus was truly the Son of God, he could throw himself down because God would provide for him.

They find Jesus on the third day (Lk 2:46-2:46)

“After three days,

They found him

In the Temple.

He was

Sitting among

The teachers,

Listening to them

And asking them questions.”

 

καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ ἡμέρας τρεῖς εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καθεζόμενον ἐν μέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων καὶ ἀκούοντα αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπερωτῶντα αὐτούς·

 

Good news!  Luke said that Joseph and Mary found Jesus after 3 days (καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ ἡμέρας τρεῖς).  That probably means that he was found on the 3rd day since they traveled one day out and one day back on their journey.  These 3 days will play an important role in the resurrection story, because Jesus will rise from the dead after 3 days.  Thus, the distress of these parents will be like the distress of the disciples of Jesus after his death.  The parents of Jesus found him in the Temple (εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), just like the women who found the empty tomb on the 3rd day.  Jesus, the 12-year-old was sitting in the middle or among the Temple masters or teachers (καθεζόμενον ἐν μέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων), experts in the Jewish religion and traditions.  He was both listening to them (καὶ ἀκούοντα αὐτῶν) and asking them questions (καὶ ἐπερωτῶντα αὐτούς).  Nothing had been mentioned about his prior schooling in Nazareth, if there was any.  Had he been trained at the local synagogue in Nazareth?

 

The redemption of Jerusalem (Lk 2:38-2:38)

“At that moment,

Anna came there.

She began

To praise God.

She began

To speak

About the child

To all who were looking

For the redemption

Of Jerusalem.”

 

καὶ αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ ἐπιστᾶσα ἀνθωμολογεῖτο τῷ Θεῷ καὶ ἐλάλει περὶ αὐτοῦ πᾶσιν τοῖς προσδεχομένοις λύτρωσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ

 

Luke said that at that moment or hour (καὶ αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ), when Mary, Joseph, and Jesus were there in the Temple, Anna, the prophetess daughter of Phanuel came to them (ἐπιστᾶσα).  She began to praise God (ἀνθωμολογεῖτο τῷ Θεῷ), as was her custom.  However, she also spoke about this child Jesus (καὶ ἐλάλει περὶ αὐτοῦ).  He would be important for all those who were looking for or expecting the liberation or redemption of Jerusalem (πᾶσιν τοῖς προσδεχομένοις λύτρωσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ).  This old prophet lady noticed Jesus in the same way that the old righteous man Simeon had.  She came over to him and his parents.  She said that Jesus would be important for anyone concerned about the future of Jerusalem.  Notice that it was not Israel, but Jerusalem that would be saved, liberated, or redeemed.

Old Anna lived in the Temple (Lk 2:37-2:37)

“Then Anna lived

As a widow

To the age of eighty-four.

She never left

The Temple.

She worshiped there

With fasting

And prayer,

Night and day.”

 

καὶ αὐτὴ χήρα ἕως ἐτῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τεσσάρων, ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ νηστείαις καὶ δεήσεσιν λατρεύουσα νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν.

 

Next Luke spoke about how this old female prophet, Anna was a widow, living in the Temple, worshiping and fasting day and night.  Thus, she lived as a widow to the age of eighty-four (καὶ αὐτὴ χήρα ἕως ἐτῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τεσσάρων).  She never left the Temple (ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ).  She worshiped or served there with fasting and prayer (νηστείαις καὶ δεήσεσιν λατρεύουσα), night and day (νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν).  She was a very devout old Jewish lady.  Once again, Luke indicated that she was a widow that did not remarry, but dedicated herself to the Temple worship.

Simeon (Lk 2:25-2:25)

“Now there was a man

In Jerusalem,

Whose name

Was Simeon.

This man

Was righteous

And devout.

He was looking forward

To the consolation

Of Israel.

The Holy Spirit

Rested upon him.”

 

Καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος ἦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ ᾧ ὄνομα Συμεών, καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος δίκαιος καὶ εὐλαβής, προσδεχόμενος παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, καὶ Πνεῦμα ἦν Ἅγιον ἐπ’ αὐτόν·

 

Next Luke brought a man named Simeon into this scene in the Jerusalem Temple.  We know nothing else about him, except what is written here in Luke.  Simeon (ᾧ ὄνομα Συμεών,) was a righteous (καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος δίκαιος) and devout God-fearing man (καὶ εὐλαβής) living in Jerusalem (Καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος ἦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ).  He was looking forward to the consolation of Israel (προσδεχόμενος παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ).  The Holy Spirit rested upon him (καὶ Πνεῦμα ἦν Ἅγιον ἐπ’ αὐτόν).  Once again, Luke emphasized that the Holy Spirit was on Simeon, just he had been on John, Mary, Elizabeth, and Zechariah, 5 people filled with the Holy Spirit.  The consolation that Simeon was expecting was the redemption of Israel or the messianic happening of the end times.

 

His name is John (Lk 1:63-1:63)

“Zechariah asked

For a writing tablet.

He wrote.

‘His name is John.’

All of them

Were amazed.”

 

καὶ αἰτήσας πινακίδιον ἔγραψεν λέγων Ἰωάνης ἐστὶν ὄνομα αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐθαύμασαν πάντες.

 

Luke said that Zechariah had asked, demanded, or requested a writing tablet (καὶ αἰτήσας πινακίδιον) with his various signs, as there must have been a tablet available.  Then he wrote on this tablet (ἔγραψεν), since he would have been educated enough to write as a Temple priest.  He said on the tablet that the name of this child was to be John (λέγων Ἰωάνης ἐστὶν ὄνομα αὐτοῦ).  All of people there were amazed or marveled at what was happening (καὶ ἐθαύμασαν πάντες).