Render to Caesar (Lk 20:25-20:25)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Then give

To the Emperor Caesar

The things

That are the Emperor Caesar’s!

Give to God

The things

That are God’s.’”

 

ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Τοίνυν ἀπόδοτε τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) to give back to the Emperor Caesar (Τοίνυν ἀπόδοτε τὰ Καίσαρος), the things that are of the Emperor Caesar’s (Καίσαρι)!  However, give to God the things that are God’s (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:21, and in Mark, chapter 12:17, almost word for word.  Mark said that Jesus responded to them (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι).  At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ).  Matthew said that Jesus responded to them (τότε λέγει αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι).  At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ).  Jesus appeared to accept the Roman rule and its taxing policies.  He also had a milder view of their tax collectors.  With this ambiguous answer, Jesus avoided offending Jewish nationalists and the Roman Empire party and its officials.  Thus, the Roman and Jewish parties were both satisfied and unsatisfied at the same time.  If everything belonged to God, do not pay this tax.  If everything belonged to the Roman Empire, pay the tax.  The choice was theirs.  He was not going to tell them what to do.  This statement of Jesus has become the basic Christian understanding of the relationship between religious churches and civilian states.  Do you see a difference between Church regulations and civic state regulations?

Who is this for? (Lk 12:41-12:41)

“Peter said.

‘Lord!

Are you telling

This parable

For us

Or for everyone?’”

 

Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος Κύριε, πρὸς ἡμᾶς τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην λέγεις ἢ καὶ πρὸς πάντας;

 

Luke had a unique question from Peter.  Peter asked Jesus (Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος), calling him Lord (Κύριε).  Was he about to tell this parable (τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην λέγεις) for them (πρὸς ἡμᾶς) or for everyone (ἢ καὶ πρὸς πάντας)?  There seemed to be some confusion among the apostles about the role of these parables.  Were they for everyone or just for his disciples?  Do you like the parables of Jesus?

The demons recognize Jesus (Lk 4:41-4:41)

“Demons also

Came out

Of many people.

They were shouting.

‘You are the Son of God!’

But he rebuked them.

He would not allow them

To speak,

Because they knew

That he was the Messiah,

The Christ.”

 

ἐξήρχετο δὲ καὶ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ πολλῶν, κραυγάζοντα καὶ λέγοντα ὅτι Σὺ εἶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ. καὶ ἐπιτιμῶν οὐκ εἴα αὐτὰ λαλεῖν, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν τὸν Χριστὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι.

 

Luke also had Jesus cast out demons.  He said that these demons came out of many people (ἐξήρχετο δὲ καὶ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ πολλῶν).  They were saying or shouting out (κραυγάζοντα καὶ λέγοντα) that Jesus was the Son of God (ὅτι Σὺ εἶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ).  But Jesus rebuked, admonished, or warned them (καὶ ἐπιτιμῶν).  He would not allow them to speak (οὐκ εἴα αὐτὰ λαλεῖν), because they knew that he was the Messiah, the Christ (ὅτι ᾔδεισαν τὸν Χριστὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι).  Matthew, chapter 8:16, has something similar, but Jesus cast out these demons with simply a word.  Mark, chapter 1:34, is also similar.  However, there like here, the cast out demons also knew and spoke out that Jesus was the Messiah, the Son of God.  This idea of not telling people that Jesus was the Christ or Messiah has come to be known as the Messianic secret.  Those who knew about the true role of Jesus were told to be quiet about it.  Why did the demons know about this?

Many accusations (Mk 15:3-15:3)

“Then the chief priests

Accused Jesus

Of many things.”

 

καὶ κατηγόρουν αὐτοῦ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς πολλά.

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 27:12-13.  However, in Luke, chapter 23:9-10, this dialogue took place before Governor Herod Antipas in Galilee, instead of here before Governor Pontius Pilate in Judea.  Mark said that the chief priests accused Jesus of many things (καὶ κατηγόρουν αὐτοῦ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς πολλά).  Each gospel writer had their own way of telling this story.  Do you tell stories differently?

 

You do not know scriptures (Mk 12:24-12:24)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Is this not the reason

That you are wrong?

You know neither

The scriptures

Nor the power of God.’”

 

ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ

 

This comment or reprimand by Jesus is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:29, but not in Luke.  Mark said that Jesus responded to the Sadducees (ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or led astray (Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε).  They did not know scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς).  They also did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ).  Simply put, they were ill-informed or stupid.

Render to Caesar (Mk 12:17-12:17)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Give to the emperor Caesar

The things

That are the emperor Caesar’s.

Give to God

The things

That are God’s.’”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ.

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:21, and in Luke, chapter 20:25, almost word for word.  Mark said that Jesus responded to them (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι).  At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ).  Jesus appeared to accept the Roman rule and its taxing policies, as he also had a milder view of their tax collectors.  With this ambiguous answer, Jesus avoided offending Jewish nationalists and the Roman Empire party and its officials.  Thus, the Roman and Jewish parties were both satisfied and unsatisfied at the same time.  If everything belonged to God, do not pay this tax.  If everything belonged to the Roman empire, pay the tax.  The choice was theirs.  He was not going to tell them what to do.  This statement of Jesus has become the basic Christian understanding of the relationships between religious church organizations and state civic organizations.

The powerful healing of the paralytic (Mk 2:10-2:11)

“But that you may know

That the Son of Man

Has authority

On earth

To forgive sins,

He said to the paralytic.

‘I say to you!

Stand up!

Take your pallet bed!

Go to your home!’”

 

ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, — λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ

Σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειρε ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σο

 

Luke, chapter 5:24, and Matthew, chapter 9:6, are almost word for word to Mark, so that Mark might be the source of this saying.  Mark remarked that Jesus said that they should know that the Son of Man had the power and authority (ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) to forgive sins on earth (ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς).  He said to the paralytic (λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ) that he was telling him (Σοὶ λέγω) to stand up (Ἔγειρε), take his bed (ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου), and go to his own home (καὶ ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου).  In other words, Jesus, the Son of Man, was going to show his power in this healing action.  The use of this term “Son of Man” to describe Jesus indicated his divine eschatological nature