“But the twelve apostles
All these things.
What he said
They did not grasp
What was said.”
καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐδὲν τούτων συνῆκαν, καὶ ἦν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο κεκρυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν, καὶ οὐκ ἐγίνωσκον τὰ λεγόμενα.
Luke uniquely added that 12 apostles did not understood anything about all these things (καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐδὲν τούτων συνῆκαν) about his future death and resurrection. In fact, what Jesus said was hidden from them (καὶ ἦν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο κεκρυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν), because they did not grasp what he said (καὶ οὐκ ἐγίνωσκον τὰ λεγόμενα). Despite Jesus’ attempt to inform his elite 12 apostles, they still did not understand what he was talking about. This is somewhat similar to earlier in chapter 9:45, where Luke said that the disciples did not understand this saying of Jesus (οἱ δὲ ἠγνόουν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο), because its meaning was veiled or concealed from them (καὶ ἦν παρακεκαλυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν). Thus, they could not comprehend it (ἵνα μὴ αἴσθωνται αὐτό). However, they were afraid (καὶ ἐφοβοῦντο) to ask Jesus (ἐρωτῆσαι αὐτὸν) about the meaning of this saying (περὶ τοῦ ῥήματος τούτου). This saying about the reaction of the disciples can also be found in Matthew, chapter 17:23, and Mark, chapter 9:32. Mark, like Luke, said that the disciples did not understand what Jesus was talking about. They were afraid to ask or question him about this. Once again, Mark indicated that the disciples did not seem to understand everything that was going on around them. Matthew, on the other hand, said that on hearing this, the disciples were greatly vexed, pained, or distressed, since this was shocking news to them. Do you always understand what Jesus is talking about?
“And an argument arose
Among the disciples
As to which one
Was the greatest.”
Εἰσῆλθεν δὲ διαλογισμὸς ἐν αὐτοῖς, τὸ τίς ἂν εἴη μείζων αὐτῶν.
Luke said that an argument arose among the disciples of Jesus (Εἰσῆλθεν δὲ διαλογισμὸς ἐν αὐτοῖς) as to which one of them was the greatest (τὸ τίς ἂν εἴη μείζων αὐτῶν). This question about the greatest can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:1, Mark, chapter 9:33-34, and here, with some changes. Mark said that Jesus asked them what they were discussing or arguing about on the way there. Jesus knew that they had been talking about something that was a little heated. Instead of coming to Jesus, as in Matthew, Mark had Jesus go to the disciples. They were silent when Jesus asked them what they were talking about on their travels. In fact, they had been arguing or discussing among themselves on the way there, who was the greatest. Mark never mentioned the greatest in the kingdom of heaven, but just the greatest in general. The late Muhammad Ali (1942-2016) always proclaimed that he was the greatest, without indicating what he was the greatest at. They were looking for some sort of status. Matthew said that the disciples came to Jesus with this question, instead of arguing among themselves. They asked him who was the greatest in the kingdom of the heaven? They were looking for some sort of status in a gnostic concept of a higher and lower status people. After all, they were the important disciples of Jesus. Who do you think is the greatest disciple of Jesus?
“But his disciples
Did not understand
They could not
They were afraid
To ask him
About this saying.”
οἱ δὲ ἠγνόουν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο, καὶ ἦν παρακεκαλυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ἵνα μὴ αἴσθωνται αὐτό, καὶ ἐφοβοῦντο ἐρωτῆσαι αὐτὸν περὶ τοῦ ῥήματος τούτου.
Luke said that the disciples did not understand this saying of Jesus (οἱ δὲ ἠγνόουν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο), because its meaning was veiled or concealed from them (καὶ ἦν παρακεκαλυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν). Thus, they could not comprehend it (ἵνα μὴ αἴσθωνται αὐτό). However, they were afraid (καὶ ἐφοβοῦντο) to ask Jesus (ἐρωτῆσαι αὐτὸν) about the meaning of this saying (περὶ τοῦ ῥήματος τούτου). This saying about the reaction of the disciples can also be found in Matthew, chapter 17:23, and Mark, chapter 9:32. Mark, like Luke, said that the disciples did not understand what Jesus was talking about. They were afraid to ask or question him about this. Once again, Mark indicated that the disciples did not seem to understand everything that was going on around them. Matthew, on the other hand, said that on hearing this, the disciples were greatly vexed, pained, or distressed, since this was shocking news to them. They seemed to understand what Jesus was taking about. Do you always understand what Jesus is talking about?
καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο συνελάλουν αὐτῷ, οἵτινες ἦσαν Μωϋσῆς καὶ Ἡλείας,
Luke said that suddenly, the 3 apostles saw 2 men (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες), Moses (οἵτινες ἦσαν Μωϋσῆς) and Elijah (καὶ Ἡλείας), talking to Jesus (συνελάλουν αὐτῷ). This appearance of Moses and Elijah can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:34, Mark, chapter 9:4, and here in Luke. Mark said that Elijah with Moses, talking with Jesus, appeared to the 3 disciples. Matthew also said that suddenly Moses and Elijah were talking with Jesus in front of the 3 apostles. How did they know what Moses and Elijah looked like? They had never seen them before. They were nearly 1,000 years removed from their existence. Jesus, however, recognized and talked with them, so that is why they might have realized who they were. Thus, Jesus was the fulfillment of the Law of Moses and at the same time the fulfillment of the prophets with Elijah, one of the earliest prophets from the 9th century BCE. Moses and Elijah also represented the ancient righteous people. How would you recognize an ancient historical figure?
Of his face
Became dazzling white.”
καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ προσεύχεσθαι αὐτὸν τὸ εἶδος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ ἕτερον καὶ ὁ ἱματισμὸς αὐτοῦ λευκὸς ἐξαστράπτων.
Luke said that while Jesus was praying (καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ προσεύχεσθαι αὐτὸν), the appearance of his face changed or altered (τὸ εἶδος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ ἕτερον). Also, his clothes became dazzling white (καὶ ὁ ἱματισμὸς αὐτοῦ λευκὸς ἐξαστράπτων). This description of the face and clothing of Jesus can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:2, Mark, chapter 9:3, and here in Luke, but there are minor differences in all 3 accounts. Mark said that Jesus was transfigured in front of the 3 apostles. There was a metamorphosis, as the appearance of Jesus changed right before their very eyes. There was no mention of the face of Jesus changing, as in Matthew and Luke. However, Mark indicated that Jesus’ clothes or garments became a dazzling white, so white that not even any cleaner on earth could bleach them any whiter. Matthew also said that Jesus was transfigured in front of the 3 apostles. He said that Jesus’ face was shining like the sun, just like what happened to Moses, in Exodus, chapter 34:35. There the face of Moses was so bright that he had to put a veil on after talking to Yahweh, before he could talk to Aaron, his brother. Jesus’ clothes or garments also became a dazzling white, like a bright light or white snow. Suddenly, the human Jesus seemed more brightly divine. White and light were good, while black and darkness were bad. What is the whitest white that you have seen?
“Then the Scribes
And the Pharisees
Began to question.
‘Who is this
That speaks blasphemies?
Who can forgive sins
But God alone?’”
καὶ ἤρξαντο διαλογίζεσθαι οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι λέγοντες Τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὃς λαλεῖ βλασφημίας; τίς δύναται ἁμαρτίας ἀφεῖναι εἰ μὴ μόνος ὁ Θεός;
Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the Pharisees (καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) began to reason or question Jesus (καὶ ἤρξαντο διαλογίζεσθαι). Was Jesus not speaking blasphemies (λέγοντες Τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὃς λαλεῖ βλασφημίας)? Only God could forgive sins (τίς δύναται ἁμαρτίας ἀφεῖναι εἰ μὴ μόνος ὁ Θεός). Mark, chapter 2:6-7, and Matthew, chapter 9:3, are similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying about the Pharisees and the Scribes saying that Jesus was committing blasphemy. Mark and Matthew did not mention the Pharisees, just the Scribes. Mark said that some of these Scribes were sitting there in this crowded room. They were reasoning or questioning in their hearts, but not to others. They wondered why Jesus was talking this way, since it appeared to be blasphemy. Blasphemers used scurrilous or irreverent language about God. How was Jesus able to forgive sins, since only God can forgive sins? This seems like a legitimate question.
καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ.
Luke concluded his quote of Isaiah with the saying that all flesh will see (καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ) the salvation of God (τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ). However, that is not from Isaiah who said that the glory of Yahweh would be revealed. All the people would see it together. I suppose that the intent is pretty much the same. Deutero-Isaiah was talking about Yahweh saving his people from Babylon. Thus, this might be considered a unique saying of Luke.