Sit at the table (Lk 17:7-17:7)

“Who among you

Would say

To your slave,

Who had just come in

From plowing

Or tending sheep

In the field.

‘Come here at once!

Take your place

At the table’?”

 

Τίς δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν δοῦλον ἔχων ἀροτριῶντα ἢ ποιμαίνοντα, ὃς εἰσελθόντι ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ ἐρεῖ αὐτῷ Εὐθέως παρελθὼν ἀνάπεσε,

 

Once again, Luke uniquely has a saying of Jesus that is not in the other synoptic gospels.  Jesus asked who among them would say to their slave (Τίς δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν δοῦλον), who had just come in from the field (ὃς εἰσελθόντι ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ), after plowing (ἔχων ἀροτριῶντα) or tending the sheep (ἢ ποιμαίνοντα), to immediately take his place reclining at the table with them (ἐρεῖ αὐτῷ Εὐθέως παρελθὼν ἀνάπεσε).  Obviously, slavery was considered okay.  Slaves were in a separate category from the land owners.  No one would invite his slave to share a meal with them.  Does that sound harsh to you?

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You will weep! (Lk 13:28-13:28)

“There will be

Weeping

And gnashing

Of teeth,

When you see

Abraham,

Isaac,

And Jacob,

With all the prophets,

In the kingdom of God.

However,

You yourselves

Will be thrown out.”

 

ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων, ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that there would be weeping (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) and gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), when they would see (ὅταν ὄψησθε) Abraham (Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ), with all the prophets (καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας) in the kingdom of God (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ).  However, they would be thrown out (ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω).  This saying about the failure of the sons of Abraham is similar to Matthew, chapter 8:11-12, perhaps a Q source with its anti-Jewish bias.  Matthew had this saying of Jesus begin with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν).  Many people would come from the east and the west (ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν) to recline at table (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) during the Messianic feast with the 3 great Hebrew Jewish leaders, Abraham (μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ) in the kingdom of heaven (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν).  However, the sons or the heirs of the kingdom (οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας) would be thrown out into the outer darkness (ἐκβληθήσονται εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping, crying, or lamenting (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) with the gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων).  These were the traditional ways or signs to show anger and frustration.  In this a reference to the end times damnation?  Have you ever been angry or frustrated?

The Pharisee dinner (Lk 11:37-11:37)

“While Jesus

Was speaking,

A Pharisee

Invited Jesus

To dine with him.

Thus,

Jesus went in.

He took his place

Reclining at the table.”

 

Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος ὅπως ἀριστήσῃ παρ’ αὐτῷ· εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν

 

Luke uniquely indicated that while Jesus was speaking (Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι), a Pharisee invited Jesus (ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος) to dine with him (ὅπως ἀριστήσῃ παρ’ αὐτῷ).  Thus, Jesus went in and took his place reclining at the table (εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν).  This is the second of 3 times that Jesus will uniquely have a dinner with a Pharisee, earlier in chapter 7:36 and later in chapter 14:1.  Earlier Luke had said that one of the Pharisees asked Jesus to eat with him.  Thus, Jesus went into the Pharisee’s house.  He took his place reclining at the table.  Then the sinful woman appeared.  In each case, the Pharisees were watching Jesus very closely.  However, he must have been on speaking terms with these Jewish leaders to get this invitation.  Thus, the hostility with the Pharisees did not seem to be personal but rather theological or philosophical over their interpretation of the divine role in Jewish life.  Matthew, chapter 15:1, and Mark, chapter 7:1, had a confrontation with the Pharisees and the Scribes who came to Jesus from Jerusalem.  The Pharisees were a political party, a social movement, and a religious school of thought that became the basis for later Rabbinic Judaism.  They had their own expert explanations of Jewish law that sometimes appeared to be hypocritical or arrogant, with the letter of the law above its spirit.  They had a form of Judaism that extended beyond the Temple.  These Pharisees in the New Testament continually engaged in conflicts with Jesus and his disciples.  However, here it will be personal confrontation at a dinner party.  Do you have dinner with people that you disagree with?

Other women helped (Lk 8:3-8:3)

“Joanna,

The wife of Chuza,

Herod’s steward,

And Susanna,

As well as many others,

Provided for them

Out of their resources.”

 

καὶ Ἰωάνα γυνὴ Χουζᾶ ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου καὶ Σουσάννα καὶ ἕτεραι πολλαί, αἵτινες διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐταῖς.

 

Luke also uniquely mentioned Joanna (καὶ Ἰωάνα), the wife of Chuza (γυνὴ Χουζᾶ), Herod’s steward (ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου), and Susanna (καὶ Σουσάννα).  He also said that many other women (καὶ ἕτεραι πολλαί) provided or ministered for them at table (αἵτινες διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς) out of their means, possessions, or resources (ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐταῖς).  Joanna shows up again with Mary Magdalene in the resurrection story of Luke, chapter 24:10.  She must have been a woman of means because her husband had an important role at the court of King Herod Antipas of Galilee as his head steward.  The name Susanna only appears here among all the canonical gospels, but a Susanna played a role in the Book of Daniel.  However, there were other women, not explicitly named, who provided for Jesus and his followers with their money or resources.  In other words, there was a small entourage of women who traveled with Jesus, probably providing the food for him and his disciples, since they were not called disciples themselves.  What should be the role of women as followers of Jesus?

Who can forgive sins? (Lk 7:49-7:49)

“Those who were

At the table

With Jesus

Began to say

Among themselves.

‘Who is this?

Who even forgives sins?’”

 

καὶ ἤρξαντο οἱ συνανακείμενοι λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς Τίς οὗτός ἐστιν, ὃς καὶ ἁμαρτίας ἀφίησιν;

 

Luke uniquely had this response from those at this dinner party.  Luke said that those who were reclining at the table with Jesus began to say among themselves (καὶ ἤρξαντο οἱ συνανακείμενοι λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς) who was this who even forgives sins (Τίς οὗτός ἐστιν, ὃς καὶ ἁμαρτίας ἀφίησιν)?  This was a common topic among the Pharisees, since they maintained that only God could forgive sins, not this itinerant Galilean preacher.  Do you believe that Jesus can forgive your sins?

Eating with the Pharisees (Lk 7:36-7:36)

“One of the Pharisees

Asked Jesus

To eat

With him.

Jesus went

Into the Pharisee’s house.

He took his place

Reclining at the table.”

 

Ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων ἵνα φάγῃ μετ’ αὐτοῦ· καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου κατεκλίθη.

 

Luke uniquely said that one of the Pharisees asked Jesus (Ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων) to eat with him (ἵνα φάγῃ μετ’ αὐτοῦ).  Thus, Jesus went into the Pharisee’s house (καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου).  He took his place reclining at the table (κατεκλίθη).  According to Luke, this is the 1st of 3 times that Jesus ate with a Pharisee, with the others coming later in chapter 11:37 and 14:1.  In each case, the Pharisees were watching Jesus very closely.  However, he must have been on speaking terms with these Jewish leaders to get this invitation.  Thus, the hostility with the Pharisees did not seem to be personal but rather theological or philosophical over their interpretation of the divine role in Jewish life.  Do you have philosophical differences with any of your friends?

Jesus appears to the eleven apostles (Mk 16:14-16:14)

“Later,

Jesus appeared

To the eleven themselves,

As they were sitting

At the table.

Jesus upbraided them

For their lack of faith

And stubbornness,

Because they had not believed

Those who saw him

After he had risen.”

 

Ὕστερον δὲ ἀνακειμένοις αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἕνδεκα ἐφανερώθη, καὶ ὠνείδισεν τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν καὶ σκληροκαρδίαν ὅτι τοῖς θεασαμένοις αὐτὸν ἐγηγερμένον οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν.

 

The risen Jesus appearing to the eleven apostles can be found in Matthew, chapter 28:16, but in Galilee, and in Luke, chapter 24:36, in Jerusalem.  John, chapter 20:19 and 26 had 2 appearances of Jesus in Jerusalem, and one in Galilee, chapter 21:1.  Here in this addition to Mark, Jesus appeared to them, probably in Jerusalem.  The apostles were sitting or reclining at the table (Ὕστερον δὲ ἀνακειμένοις αὐτοῖς).  Then Jesus appeared to the 11 (τοῖς ἕνδεκα ἐφανερώθη).  He upbraided or rebuked them (καὶ ὠνείδισεν) for their lack of faith or disbelief (τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν) and their stubbornness or hardness of heart (καὶ σκληροκαρδίαν).  They had not believed (οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν) those who had seen him after his resurrection (ὅτι τοῖς θεασαμένοις αὐτὸν ἐγηγερμένον).  Once again, there were doubters among these 11 apostles about the resurrection of Jesus.  Jesus was not happy about this.