Catchers of people (Lk 5:10-5:10)

“There were also

James

And John,

The sons of Zebedee,

Who were partners

With Simon.

Then Jesus said

To Simon.

‘Do not be afraid!

From now on

You will be

Catching people.’”

 

ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάνην υἱοὺς Ζεβεδαίου, οἳ ἦσαν κοινωνοὶ τῷ Σίμωνι. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Σίμωνα ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ φοβοῦ· ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶ

 

Suddenly, Luke introduced two other people, the sons of Zebedee, James and John, who are companions or partners of Simon.  There is no mention of Simon’s brother Andrew here, but he played a major role in the other 3 gospels.  In John, chapter 1:35-42, Andrew, Simon’s brother, was a disciple of John the Baptist.  There is a major difference between Luke here and Matthew, chapter 4:18-22, and Mark, chapter 1:17-18, who were very similar.  They did not have the elaborate story about the fishing in the Sea of Galilee that is here.  Mark and Matthew had the brothers Simon and Andrew being fishermen that Jesus saw along the Sea of Galilee, casting or dropping a net into the sea.  Mark did not mention the other name of Simon as Peter, like Matthew did.  However, it was common for people to have both a Hebrew name like Simon and a Greek name like Peter.  John, chapter 1:40-42, had these two brothers from the town of Bethsaida.  Mark and Matthew also introduced John and James, the fisherman sons of Zebedee.  Zebedee might have been fairly successful, since he was explicitly mentioned and seemed to own a boat.  These two brothers, James and John, were in a boat mending their fishing nets with their father, not casting them out to sea.  Luke said that James and John, the sons of Zebedee (ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάνην υἱοὺς Ζεβεδαίου), were partners or companions with Simon (οἳ ἦσαν κοινωνοὶ τῷ Σίμωνι), so that they may have shared a boat or boats.  Then Jesus told Simon (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Σίμωνα ὁ Ἰησοῦς) not to be afraid (Μὴ φοβοῦ).  From now on, he would be catching people or men, not fish (ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶ).  They were no longer going to fish for marine life, but human life.  They were to be on the hunt for humans, and not fish.

Advertisements

Jesus sees James and John (Mk 1:19-1:19)

“As Jesus went

A little farther,

He saw James,

The son of Zebedee,

And his brother,

John.

They were

In their boat

Mending their nets.”

 

Καὶ προβὰς ὀλίγον εἶδεν Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάνην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ καταρτίζοντας τὰ δίκτυα,

 

Once again Mark and Matthew, chapter 4:20, are almost word for word.  Mark introduced two new disciples, John and James, the fisherman sons of Zebedee.  Zebedee might have been successful since he was explicitly mentioned and he seemed to own a boat.  Jesus apparently had just left Simon Peter and Andrew a short distance away (Καὶ προβὰς ὀλίγον).  Once again, Jesus saw two other fishermen brothers (εἶδεν Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάνην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ).  These two brothers, the sons of Zebedee, James and John, were in a boat (καὶ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ) mending the fishing nets (καταρτίζοντας τὰ δίκτυα), not casting them out to sea.  Luke, chapter 5:10, indicated that these two sons of Zebedee were partners with Simon, so that they may have shared a boat or boats.

A man without a wedding garment (Mt 22:10-22:11)

“Those slaves went out

Into the streets.

They gathered

All whom they found,

Both bad and good.

Thus,

The wedding hall

Was filled with guests.

But when the king came in

To see the guests,

He saw there a man

Who was not wearing

A wedding garment.”

 

καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ δοῦλοι ἐκεῖνοι εἰς τὰς ὁδοὺς συνήγαγον πάντας οὓς εὗρον, πονηρούς τε καὶ ἀγαθούς· καὶ ἐπλήσθη ὁ νυμφὼν ἀνακειμένων.

εἰσελθὼν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς θεάσασθαι τοὺς ἀνακειμένους εἶδεν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπον οὐκ ἐνδεδυμένον ἔνδυμα γάμου·

 

This is unique to Matthew.  Those slaves were successful, as they went out into the roads and streets (καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ δοῦλοι ἐκεῖνοι εἰς τὰς ὁδοὺς).  They got anyone they could find (συνήγαγον πάντας οὓς εὗρον), both bad and good (πονηρούς τε καὶ ἀγαθούς) to come to the wedding banquet.  Thus, the wedding hall was filled with reclining wedding dining guests (πονηρούς τε καὶ ἀγαθούς).  However, when the king came in (εἰσελθὼν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς) to see the reclining guests (θεάσασθαι τοὺς ἀνακειμένους), he saw a man there who was not wearing a wedding garment or wedding robe (εἶδεν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπον οὐκ ἐνδεδυμένον ἔνδυμα γάμου).  This wedding garment or robe might be an allusion to a garment or robe of righteousness.  However, the slaves had invited some bad, wicked, or evil people also.

Let your brother become a gentile (Mt 18:16-18:17)

“But if you are not listened to,

Take one

Or two others

Along with you.

Thus,

Every word may be confirmed

By the evidence

Of two

Or three witnesses.

If he refuses to listen

To them,

Tell it to the church.

If he refuses

To listen even to the church,

Let him be to you

As a gentile

And a tax collector.”

 

ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀκούσῃ, παράλαβε μετὰ σοῦ ἔτι ἕνα ἢ δύο, ἵνα ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων ἢ τριῶν σταθῇ πᾶν ῥῆμα·

ἐὰν δὲ παρακούσῃ αὐτῶν, εἰπὸν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ· ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τῆς ἐκκλησίας παρακούσῃ, ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ ὁ ἐθνικὸς καὶ ὁ τελώνης.

 

This saying about the brother who would not listen to reprimands is unique to Matthew.  This exchange seems to imply a solid structure with specific rules and regulations, not a band of itinerant healing preachers.  If you were not successful with reprimanding your brother, because he would not listen to you (ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀκούσῃ), you were to take one or two others with you (παράλαβε μετὰ σοῦ ἔτι ἕνα ἢ δύο).  This is almost like a Jewish religious court case based on Deuteronomy, chapter 19:15, where a single witness would not be enough to convict a person of any crime or wrong-doing.  They needed the evidence of two or three witnesses, since one person was not sufficient enough to convict anyone of any crime.  There had to be at least 2 or 3 witnesses to sustain a charge.  Thus, the testimony of 2 or 3 witnesses might strengthen or confirm every word (ἵνα ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων ἢ τριῶν σταθῇ πᾶν ῥῆμα).  If your brother still refused to listen to them (ἐὰν δὲ παρακούσῃ αὐτῶν), then you should bring him to the church or the congregation (εἰπὸν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ).  Along with chapter 16:18, where Peter was the rock of the new church, this indicates a church structure at the time that Matthew was writing this gospel.  If your brother still refused to listen to the church congregation (ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τῆς ἐκκλησίας παρακούσῃ), he should become like a gentile or a tax collector (ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ ὁ ἐθνικὸς καὶ ὁ τελώνης), an outcast from the community.  This indicates that the disciples of Jesus still thought like Jewish people with no room for gentiles and foreign Roman tax collectors.

The call of James and John (Mt 4:21-4:22)

“As Jesus went from there,

He saw

Two other brothers,

James,

The son of Zebedee,

With his brother,

John.

They were in the boat

With their father,

Zebedee,

Mending their nets.

Jesus called them.

Immediately,

They left the boat.

They left their father.

They followed Jesus.”

 

Καὶ προβὰς ἐκεῖθεν εἶδεν ἄλλους δύο ἀδελφούς, Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάνην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ μετὰ Ζεβεδαίου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῶν καταρτίζοντας τὰ δίκτυα αὐτῶν· καὶ ἐκάλεσεν αὐτούς.

οἱ δὲ εὐθέως ἀφέντες τὸ πλοῖον καὶ τὸν πατέρα αὐτῶν ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ.

 

Continuing with his dependenance on Mark, chapter 1:19-20, Matthew introduced two new disciples, John and James, the fisherman sons of Zebedee.  Zebedee might have been successful since he was explicitly mentioned, as he seemed to own a boat.  Jesus apparently had just left Simon Peter and Andrew (Καὶ προβὰς ἐκεῖθεν).  Once again, Jesus saw two other fishermen brothers (εἶδεν ἄλλους δύο ἀδελφούς).  These two brothers were James and John with their father Zebedee (Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάνην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ).  They were in the boat with their father mending the fishing nets (ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ μετὰ Ζεβεδαίου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῶν καταρτίζοντας τὰ δίκτυα αὐτῶν).  Then as he had done with the other two brothers, Jesus called these two brothers (καὶ ἐκάλεσεν αὐτούς).  Just like Simon Peter and Andrew had done, they immediately (οἱ δὲ εὐθέως) left both their boat and their father (ἀφέντες τὸ πλοῖον καὶ τὸν πατέρα αὐτῶν).  Both James and John, the sons of Zebedee, followed Jesus (ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ).  So now, we have four disciples of Jesus, two sets of brothers, according to Matthew and Mark.

The response of Jesus (Mt 4:10-4:10)

“Jesus said to the devil.

‘Away with you!

Satan!’

It is written.

‘Worship

The Lord!

Your God!

Serve only him!”

 

τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ὕπαγε, Σατανᾶ· γέγραπται γάρ Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις.

 

Just like in Luke, chapter 4:8, the wording is the same, indicating a common source, perhaps Q. Once again, Jesus had a very direct response (τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς). He simply told Satan or the devil to go away (Ὕπαγε, Σατανᾶ). Then he referred to another scriptural writing (γέγραπται γάρ) from Deuteronomy, chapter 6:13. This was again a simple statement that you should only worship and serve the Lord your God (γάρ Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις). You should serve him alone (καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις). It looks like the devil would not be successful with any of these temptations. In Deuteronomy, chapter 6:13, Yahweh had said they should only fear and serve Yahweh and swear by his name only.

Yahweh is on their side (Zech 9:14-9:15)

“Then Yahweh will appear

Over them.

His arrow goes forth

Like lightning.

Yahweh God

Will sound the trumpet.

He will march forth

In the whirlwinds of the south.

Yahweh of hosts

Will protect them.

They shall devour their enemies.

They shall tread down

Those shooting sling shot stones.

They shall drink

Their blood

Like wine.

They will be full of blood

Like a drenched bowl,

As the corners of the altar.”

Yahweh will clearly be on their side.  Yahweh was going to be like a lightning arrow.  He was going to sound the trumpet for them to march forward.  He was going to be like a whirlwind protecting them.  Thus, they would devour their enemies and tread down the sling shot shooters.  They would be so successful that they would drink the blood of their enemies like wine.  Their bowls would be so drenched with blood that it would look like the corners of the sacrificial altars in the Temple.