“Then he told them
‘Look at the fig tree!
Look at all the trees!’”
Καὶ εἶπεν παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς Ἴδετε τὴν συκῆν καὶ πάντα τὰ δένδρα
Luke indicated that Jesus said that he was going to tell them another parable (Καὶ εἶπεν παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς). They were to look at the fig tree (Ἴδετε τὴν συκῆν), in fact, all the trees (καὶ πάντα τὰ δένδρα). This is similar to Matthew, chapter 24:32, and Mark, chapter 13:28, who are word for word the same as each other. Mark indicated that Jesus said they were to learn a lesson or parable (μάθετε τὴν παραβολήν) about the fig tree (Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς συκῆς). Earlier in Matthew, chapter 21:19-20, Jesus had cursed a fig tree for not having fruit, but here there was a lesson or a little parable to be learned (μάθετε τὴν παραβολήν) from the fig tree (Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς συκῆς). These fig trees play an important role in these stories or parables. Have you ever seen a fig tree?
“But not a hair
Of your head
καὶ θρὶξ ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς ὑμῶν οὐ μὴ ἀπόληται·
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that not a hair of their heads (καὶ θρὶξ ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς ὑμῶν) would perish or be destroyed (οὐ μὴ ἀπόληται). This saying only appears in Luke and nowhere else in the other gospel stories. Why would these disciples not suffer even a hair from the top of their heads, while others would be suffering? There is no easy answer. They would somehow be saved from these persecutions. Do you have good hair?
“Then they brought
On the colt.
They set Jesus
On the colt.”
καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ ἐπιρίψαντες αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐπὶ τὸν πῶλον ἐπεβίβασαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν.
Luke indicated that they two disciples brought the colt to Jesus (καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν). They threw their cloaks on the colt (καὶ ἐπιρίψαντες αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐπὶ τὸν πῶλον). They then set Jesus on the colt (ἐπεβίβασαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν). Both Matthew, chapter 21:7, and Mark, chapter 11:7, are similar. Mark said that the two disciples brought or led this colt (καὶ φέρουσιν τὸν πῶλον) back to Jesus (πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν). They placed their outer garments, cloaks, or coats on this colt (καὶ ἐπιβάλλουσιν αὐτῷ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν). Then Jesus sat on the colt (καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν). Jesus had an animal to ride on. In Matthew, they put their outer garments or coats on them (καὶ ἐπέθηκαν ἐπ’ αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια). Then Jesus sat on them (καὶ ἐπεκάθισεν ἐπάνω αὐτῶν). This is where the two animals concept falls apart, since Jesus could not sit on two animals at the same time. Thus, the Mark and Luke stories and the prophet Zechariah are right about one young colt donkey, not a donkey and a colt. Jesus was ready for his grand entrance into Jerusalem. How would you prepare for a great entrance?
“But as for these enemies
Who did not want me
To be king
Bring them here!
In my presence!”
πλὴν τοὺς ἐχθρούς μου τούτους τοὺς μὴ θελήσαντάς με βασιλεῦσαι ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ἀγάγετε ὧδε καὶ κατασφάξατε αὐτοὺς ἔμπροσθέν μου.
Luke uniquely has this comment of Jesus about the nobleman talking about his enemies (πλὴν τοὺς ἐχθρούς μου τούτους) who did not want him to be their king (τοὺς μὴ θελήσαντάς με βασιλεῦσαι ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς). He wanted them brought to him (ἀγάγετε ὧδε) so that they could kill them in his presence (καὶ κατασφάξατε αὐτοὺς ἔμπροσθέν μου). Once again, there is a unique word in Luke, κατασφάξατε, meaning to kill off, slaughter, or slay, that is not found in any of the other Greek biblical literature. This will be a bloodbath. This concludes the comments that were in verse 14, earlier in this chapter. There was nothing about this killing in Matthew, only the weeping and gnashing of teeth. Perhaps Luke combined two stories here. Do you punish people who do not like you?
Jesus told them
εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην λέγων
Luke indicated that Jesus wanted to justify his behavior. Thus, he told them (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς) this parable (τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην λέγων). This parable of the lost sheep can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:12, with some minor changes. Perhaps this is a Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them to think (Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ) about these things or this parable, although he did not call it a parable like Luke did here. Do you like stories or parables?
“Jesus told them
‘No one tears
From a new garment
And sews it on
An old garment.
The new piece
Will be torn.
The new piece
Will not match
The old garment.’”
Ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Οὐδεὶς ἐπίβλημα ἀπὸ ἱματίου καινοῦ σχίσας ἐπιβάλλει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν· εἰ δὲ μήγε, καὶ τὸ καινὸν σχίσει καὶ τῷ παλαιῷ οὐ συμφωνήσει τὸ ἐπίβλημα τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ καινοῦ.
Luke indicated that Jesus told them a parable (Ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς). This will be first of many parables or stories. Jesus said that no one tears a piece from a new garment (ὅτι Οὐδεὶς ἐπίβλημα ἀπὸ ἱματίου καινοῦ σχίσας) and sews it on an old garment (ἐπιβάλλει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν). Otherwise (εἰ δὲ μήγε), the new piece will be torn (καὶ τὸ καινὸν σχίσει) and the new piece will not match the old garment (καὶ τῷ παλαιῷ οὐ συμφωνήσει τὸ ἐπίβλημα τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ καινοῦ). Mark, chapter 2:21, and Matthew, chapter 9:16, are similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this mending of the cloth saying. Luke called his saying a parable, while Mark and Matthew did not use that terminology. They remarked that Jesus said that no one would sew a new piece of unshrunk cloth on an old cloak or coat. This new patch would pull away or tear away. Then there would be a worse tear there than before. In other words, do not mend coats with new pieces of cloth. The new with the old will not work and match correctly. Let the old garment wear out, because there is nothing that you can do to it. Is this an indication that the new Jesus ways will not blend with the old Jewish ways?
This is where the genealogy of Matthew ends with Abraham. Luke continued further back. He said that Judah was the son of Jacob (τοῦ Ἰακὼβ), who had 12 sons with 4 different women, that become the 12 tribes of Israel. Jacob was the son of Isaac (τοῦ Ἰσαὰκ), the son of Abraham (τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ), who was the son of Terah (τοῦ Θάρα), the son of Nahor (τοῦ Ναχὼρ). Throughout the Torah, there was a continual reference to the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. These 3 generations were key to Hebrew and Jewish history. Their stories can be found in the book of Genesis, chapters 12-35. Remember that Abraham had a son with his wife’s maid, Hagar, who was called Ishmael. However, both were sent away. Jacob had a twin brother named Esau, whom he tricked out of his father’s inheritance. Terah and Nahor can be found in 1 Chronicles, chapter 1:26, and Genesis, chapter 11:24-32. Nahor was the name of Abram’s grandfather and his brother. Abram, appeared to be the oldest, took a wife named Sarai, who was barren. Later it will be revealed that Sarai is his half-sister, since Terah had a concubine. They all lived at Ur in the Chaldeans, probably in northwest Mesopotamia. Terah took his son Abram and his wife, Sarai, and his grandson Lot, and left Ur and went to Canaan. However, they settled in a place that had the same name as his dead son, Haran. This may have been part of a huge migration in the early second millennium, about 2000 years before the common Christian era.