Zacchaeus defends himself (Lk 19:8-19:8)

“Zacchaeus stood there.

He said

To the Lord.

‘Look!

Lord!

I will give

To the poor

Half of my possessions.

If I have defrauded

Anyone of anything,

I will pay back

Four times as much.’”

 

σταθεὶς δὲ Ζακχαῖος εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰδοὺ τὰ ἡμίσειά μου τῶν ὑπαρχόντων, Κύριε, τοῖς πτωχοῖς δίδωμι, καὶ εἴ τινός τι ἐσυκοφάντησα ἀποδίδωμι τετραπλοῦν.

 

Luke indicated that Zacchaeus stood there (σταθεὶς δὲ Ζακχαῖος).  He then said to the Lord Jesus (εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον), calling him Lord (Κύριε) that he was willing to give to the poor (τοῖς πτωχοῖς δίδωμι) half of his possessions (Ἰδοὺ τὰ ἡμίσειά μου τῶν ὑπαρχόντων).  He said that if he had defrauded anyone of anything (καὶ εἴ τινός τι ἐσυκοφάντησα), he was willing to pay it back 4 times as much (ἀποδίδωμι τετραπλοῦν).  Once again, Luke used the Greek word ἐσυκοφάντησα, that means to accuse falsely or defraud people, that was not found in any of the other Greek biblical writers.  Zacchaeus made a big deal about how he was not like the other tax collectors.  Despite his wealth, he was willing to give half of it away to some unnamed poor people.  Anytime, he was accused of defrauding people, he would give them 4 times what they were claiming.  This restoration of 4 times goes back to Exodus, chapter 22:1, about stealing sheep.  The thief had to pay four sheep for any one stolen sheep.  Thus, Zacchaeus seemed like a very fair person, leaning over backwards to help people.  Yet he was still wealthy.  Luke was the only synoptic with this story of Zacchaeus.  How do you treat people who claim that you are defrauding them?

With or against (Lk 11:23-11:23)

“Whoever is not

With me,

Is against me.

Whoever does not gather

With me,

Scatters.”

 

Ὁ μὴ ὢν μετ’ ἐμοῦ κατ’ ἐμοῦ ἐστιν, καὶ ὁ μὴ συνάγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ σκορπίζει.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that whoever was not with him (Ὁ μὴ ὢν μετ’ ἐμοῦ), was against him (κατ’ ἐμοῦ ἐστιν).  Whoever did not gather with him (καὶ ὁ μὴ συνάγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ) was scattering (σκορπίζει).  This saying of Jesus is exactly the same, word for word, in Matthew, chapter 12:30, thus indicating a Q source.  Either you were with Jesus or against him.  There was no in between.  Whoever was not with Jesus (ὁ μὴ ὢν μετ’ ἐμοῦ), was against him (κατ’ ἐμοῦ ἐστιν).  Whoever did not gather with Jesus (καὶ ὁ μὴ συνάγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ), scatters abroad (σκορπίζει).  Either you stood and gathered with Jesus or you were against him and scattered everywhere.  The choice was yours.  Do you gather with Jesus?

Peter and the others see the glory (Lk 9:32-9:32)

“Now Peter

And his companions

Were weighed down

With sleep.

But since they

Had stayed awake,

They saw his glory

And the two men

Who stood with him.”

 

ὁ δὲ Πέτρος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ ἦσαν βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ· διαγρηγορήσαντες δὲ εἶδαν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ καὶ τοὺς δύο ἄνδρας τοὺς συνεστῶτας αὐτῷ.

 

Luke uniquely said that Peter (ὁ δὲ Πέτρος) and his 2 companions (καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ) were weighed down with sleep (ἦσαν βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ).  However, since they had stayed fully awake (διαγρηγορήσαντες), they saw the glory of Jesus (δὲ εἶδαν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ) and the 2 men (καὶ τοὺς δύο ἄνδρας) who stood with him (τοὺς συνεστῶτας αὐτῷ).  This is another unique statement by Luke about Peter during the transfiguration, since the other synoptics did not mention this.  Peter with his 2 companions were almost asleep, like they did later in the Garden of Gethsemane.  However, Peter, James, and John stayed awake long enough to catch a glimpse of the glory of the transfigured Jesus, Moses, and Elijah, as they watched them talk together.  There was no indication what language was being spoken, but the assumption might be that it was Hebrew or Aramaic.  Have you ever fallen asleep so that you missed an important event?

This woman anoints the feet of Jesus (Lk 7:38-7:38)

“This woman

Stood behind him

At his feet,

Weeping.

She began

To bathe

His feet

With her tears.

Then she wiped them dry

With her hair.

She continued

Kissing his feet.

She anointed them

With the ointment.”

 

καὶ στᾶσα ὀπίσω παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ κλαίουσα, τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἤρξατο βρέχειν τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτῆς ἐξέμασσεν, καὶ κατεφίλει τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ καὶ ἤλειφεν τῷ μύρῳ.

 

Luke said that this sinful woman stood behind Jesus (καὶ στᾶσα ὀπίσω), at his feet (παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ), weeping (κλαίουσα).  She began to bathe or wash his feet with her tears (τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἤρξατο βρέχειν τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ).  Then she wiped his feet dry with the hair from her head (καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτῆς ἐξέμασσεν).  She continued kissing his feet (αὶ κατεφίλει τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ).  Then she anointed them with the Myron ointment (καὶ ἤλειφεν τῷ μύρῳ).  Mark, chapter 14:3, and Matthew, chapter 26:6-7, said that this unnamed sinning woman approached Jesus with an alabaster jar full of very expensive imported Indian nard ointment.  This was an anointing oil or as later Christians would call it holy oil, “Myron (μύρου).”  She broke the alabaster jar of ointment.  Then she then poured it on his head.  However, here the emphasis was on the feet of Jesus.  This woman washed his feet with her tears, dried them with her loosened hair, and then anointed his feet with the oil or Myron.  This was a highly unusual gesture.  Have you ever had your feet anointed with oil?

The great crowd on the plain field (Lk 6:17-6:17)

“Jesus came down

With them.

He stood

On a level place,

With a great crowd

Of his disciples

And a great multitude

Of people

From all Judea,

Jerusalem,

And the coast

Of Tyre

And Sidon.”

 

καὶ καταβὰς μετ’ αὐτῶν ἔστη ἐπὶ τόπου πεδινοῦ, καὶ ὄχλος πολὺς μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ, καὶ πλῆθος πολὺ τοῦ λαοῦ ἀπὸ πάσης τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ Ἱερουσαλὴμ καὶ τῆς παραλίου Τύρου καὶ Σιδῶνος,

 

Luke said that Jesus came down from the mountain with his new apostles (καὶ καταβὰς μετ’ αὐτῶν).  He stood on a level place (ἔστη ἐπὶ τόπου πεδινοῦ), with a great crowd of his disciples (καὶ ὄχλος πολὺς μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ).  There was a lot of people (καὶ πλῆθος πολὺ τοῦ λαοῦ) from all Judea (ἀπὸ πάσης τῆς Ἰουδαίας), Jerusalem (καὶ Ἱερουσαλὴμ), and the coast of Tyre and Sidon (καὶ τῆς παραλίου Τύρου καὶ Σιδῶνος).  Clearly, Jesus had become very popular, but there was no mention of anybody from Galilee.  Mark, chapter 3:7-8, said that Jesus left with his disciples to go to the Sea of Galilee, where, a great big crowd from Galilee and Judea that followed him.  People from everywhere were coming to listen to Jesus.  Jesus was no longer a local Galilean hero.  Mark said that people came to him in great numbers from Jerusalem, Idumea, beyond the Jordan and also from the regions around Tyre and Sidon.  Obviously, Jerusalem would be interested in Jesus.  Idumea was south of Judah and part of the old country of Edom.  The other side of the Jordan would have been the old territories of Manasseh, Gad, and Reuben.  Tyre and Sidon were the coastal towns of the Phoenicians in the old Asher territory.  These would have been mostly Jewish people of Israelite heritage.  Matthew, chapter 4:24-25, said that the fame of Jesus had spread all over Syria, so that huge crowds followed Jesus in Galilee.  Also, the people from Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea, and from the east bank of the Jordan River were all following Jesus.

Jesus cures her (Lk 4:39-4:39)

“Then Jesus

Stood over her.

He rebuked

The fever.

It left her.

Immediately,

She got up.

She began

To serve them.”

 

καὶ ἐπιστὰς ἐπάνω αὐτῆς ἐπετίμησεν τῷ πυρετῷ, καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτήν· παραχρῆμα δὲ ἀναστᾶσα διηκόνει αὐτοῖς.

 

Luke said that Jesus stood over her (καὶ ἐπιστὰς ἐπάνω αὐτῆς).  He rebuked the fever (ἐπετίμησεν τῷ πυρετῷ), so that it left her (καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτήν).  Immediately or instantly (παραχρῆμα), she got up (δὲ ἀναστᾶσα) and began to serve them (διηκόνει αὐτοῖς).  Matthew, chapter 8:15, and Mark, chapter 1:31, have something similar, almost word for word stories.  Luke was more dramatic here by having Jesus stand over her and rebuke the evil spirit, but Jesus did not touch her.  Mark and Matthew said that Jesus came and touched her by the hand and lifted her up.  Then the fever left her.  She, then began to serve them with her normal hospitality.  This was a typical healing that took place with a touching hand.  The mother-in law of Simon, who was staying at his house, was cured so well that she was able to resume her normal hospitality activities.

The angel appears to the shepherds (Lk 2:9-2:9)

“Then an angel

Of the Lord

Appeared before them.

The glory

Of the Lord

Shone around them.

They were terrified.”

 

καὶ ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς καὶ δόξα Κυρίου περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν.

 

Luke once again introduced an angel, but an unnamed angel, into the scene as an angelic messenger from God.  Luke said that an angel of the Lord (καὶ ἄγγελος Κυρίου) appeared or stood before them (ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς).  The glory of the Lord (καὶ δόξα Κυρίου) shone around them (περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς).  However, the shepherds were terrified with a great fear (καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν), and rightfully so.  Out of nowhere, this angel with a bright light was there before them.  This glory of the Lord could be understood as perhaps the presence of God himself.