Luke indicated that Jesus said (εἶπεν) that these things that they saw or were looking at (Ταῦτα ἃ θεωρεῖτε,) would be different in the days to come (ἐλεύσονται ἡμέραι). Not one stone would be left upon another (ἐν αἷς οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται λίθος ἐπὶ λίθῳ ὃς οὐ). All would be thrown down (καταλυθήσεται). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:2, almost word for word, with Mark, chapter 13:2. Mark said that Jesus asked this disciple (καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ) if he saw all these great buildings (Βλέπεις ταύτας τὰς μεγάλας οἰκοδομάς)? Jesus told him that not one stone would be left on another stone of the Temple buildings (οὐ μὴ ἀφεθῇ λίθος ἐπὶ λίθον). All of the Temple buildings would be torn down, thrown down, or destroyed (ὃς οὐ μὴ καταλυθῇ). Matthew said that Jesus answered them (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς). He asked them if they had not seen all these buildings (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Οὐ βλέπετε ταῦτα πάντα). Then in a solemn proclamation (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν), that was not in Luke or Mark, he told them that not one stone would be left on another stone here at the Temple (οὐ μὴ ἀφεθῇ ὧδε λίθος ἐπὶ λίθον). All of the Temple buildings would be torn down or thrown down (ὃς οὐ καταλυθήσεται). In fact, in 70 CE, within 40 years after the time of Jesus, the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed by the Romans in their war with Israel. However, threats against the Jerusalem Temple had been common among the prophets in the Hebrew Scriptures, especially before the Exile in the 7th and 6th century BCE. Have you ever seen a church or temple destroyed?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the enemies would crush Jerusalem to the ground (καὶ ἐδαφιοῦσίν σε). Luke was the only one among all the Greek biblical writers to use this word ἐδαφιοῦσίν, that means to raze, dash to the ground, or level with the ground. Jesus used the second personal singular, when he said that the city along with their children or inhabitants (καὶ τὰ τέκνα σου ἐν σοί) would be destroyed. Their enemies would not leave one stone upon another in that city (καὶ οὐκ ἀφήσουσιν λίθον ἐπὶ λίθον ἐν σοί), because the people of Jerusalem had not recognized the time of the visitation from God (ἀνθ’ ὧν οὐκ ἔγνως τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς σου), Jesus himself. In predicting the future fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, Jesus projected many of the same warnings that the Israelite and Judean prophets had proclaimed before the fall of Jerusalem in 587 BCE. The people of Jerusalem had failed to recognize what was happening around them. Are you aware of your situation in the city that you live?
Luke indicated that Jesus picked on Jerusalem (Ἱερουσαλὴμ Ἱερουσαλήμ). He called it the city that killed its prophets (ἡ ἀποκτείνουσα τοὺς προφήτας). They had stoned those who were sent to them (καὶ λιθοβολοῦσα τοὺς ἀπεσταλμένους πρὸς αὐτήν). Jesus, almost speaking as God, said that he had often desired to gather his children together (ποσάκις ἠθέλησα ἐπισυνάξαι τὰ τέκνα σου), like a hen gathered her brood under her wings (ὃν τρόπον ὄρνις τὴν ἑαυτῆς νοσσιὰν ὑπὸ τὰς πτέρυγας). However, they were not willing (καὶ οὐκ ἠθελήσατε). Both Luke and Matthew chapter 23:37, have this lament about Jerusalem, almost word for word. so that this may be a Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus addressed Jerusalem (Ἰερουσαλὴμ Ἰερουσαλήμ), saying that it was the city that killed the prophets (ἡ ἀποκτείνουσα τοὺς προφήτας). They stoned those prophets who were sent to it (καὶ λιθοβολοῦσα τοὺς ἀπεσταλμένους πρὸς αὐτήν). God, the Father, or Jesus had often desired to gather her children together (ποσάκις ἠθέλησα ἐπισυναγαγεῖν τὰ τέκνα σου), just like a hen gathers her brood of little chicks under her wings (ὃν τρόπον ὄρνις ἐπισυνάγει τὰ νοσσία αὐτῆς ὑπὸ τὰς πτέρυγας). However, Jerusalem was not willing to do so (καὶ οὐκ ἠθελήσατε). This idea of a mother hen gathering her chicks under her wings can be found in Psalm 17:8 that spoke about hiding in the shadow of her wings and Psalm 91:4 that once again spoke about being covered with wings. The exact incidents of the city of Jerusalem killing prophets cannot be clearly attested. Is there a certain city that you do not like?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that today (σήμερον), tomorrow (καὶ αὔριον), and the next following day (καὶ τῇ ἐχομένῃ), he would proceed on his way (πλὴν δεῖ με…πορεύεσθαι), because it is not possible (ὅτι οὐκ ἐνδέχεται) for a prophet (προφήτην) to be killed (ἀπολέσθαι) outside of Jerusalem (ἔξω Ἱερουσαλήμ). Notice that Jesus used the term “prophet (προφήτην)” to refer to himself, not the “Son of Man” as he often did. He had to die in Jerusalem because it was set in stone. In fact, many prophets had died outside of Jerusalem. Do you have a favorite place to die?
Luke alone said that they acted out their anger. They got up (καὶ ἀναστάντες) from the synagogue. They drove Jesus out of town (ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τῆς πόλεως). They led him to the top or the ridge of the hill (καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν ἕως ὀφρύος τοῦ ὄρους) on which their town was built (ἐφ’ οὗ ἡ πόλις ᾠκοδόμητο αὐτῶν). They wanted to hurl him off the cliff (ὥστε κατακρημνίσαι αὐτόν). One problem is that Nazareth was a flat town with no hills or cliffs. Some commentators say that they meant to stone him, but the text does not say that. However, they did not like his teachings about going to non-Jewish people and not doing any miracles in his home town.
This is similar to Matthew, chapter 27:59-60, and Luke, chapter 23:53, almost word for word. John, chapter 19:38-41 introduced Nicodemus into this burial ritual. Mark said that Joseph brought a clean linen cloth (καὶ ἀγοράσας σινδόνα). He took the body down from the cross (καθελὼν αὐτὸν). These biblical texts do not explain if he needed help with this task. Then he wrapped the body in the linen cloth (ἐνείλησεν τῇ σινδόνι). Finally, he laid Jesus’ body in his own new tomb (καὶ κατέθηκεν αὐτὸν ἐν μνήματι), that he had carved or hewn in a rock (ὃ ἦν λελατομημένον ἐκ πέτρας). He then rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb (καὶ προσεκύλισεν λίθον ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν τοῦ μνημείου). This seemed like a private one-person burial ritual.
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:2, almost word for word, and in Luke, chapter 21:6, but slightly different. Mark said that Jesus asked this disciple (καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ) if he saw all these great buildings (Βλέπεις ταύτας τὰς μεγάλας οἰκοδομάς)? There is no solemn proclamation here, as in Matthew. However, Jesus told him that not one stone would be left on another stone at the Temple (οὐ μὴ ἀφεθῇ λίθος ἐπὶ λίθον). All of the Temple buildings would be torn down, thrown down, or destroyed (ὃς οὐ μὴ καταλυθῇ). In fact, in 70 CE, less than 40 years after the time of Jesus, the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed by the Romans in their war with Israel. However, threats against the original Jerusalem Temple had been common among the prophets in the Old Testament, especially before the Exile in the 7th and 6th century BCE.
This citation of Psalm 118 can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:42, and in Luke, chapter 20:17, in an abbreviated fashion. Mark said that Jesus asked them if they had not read the scriptures (οὐδὲ τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην ἀνέγνωτε) especially Psalm 118, that was also part of the Hallel prayer. Then Jesus quoted a few verses of this Psalm 118: 22-23, about the stone that the builders had rejected (Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες), because they probably thought that it was inferior. Now, that very stone has become the cornerstone or key head stone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of that building. This was the work of the Lord (παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη) that was amazing and marvelous to everyone’s eyes (καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν). The rejected cornerstone was a hint at Jesus’s own rejection by the Jewish leaders.
This saying about causing little believing children to sin or stumble can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:6, and Luke, chapter 17:1-2, with some minor changes. Mark indicated that Jesus said that if anyone of them caused these little ones, who believed in him, to be scandalized or stumble on a block (Καὶ ὃς δ’ ἂν σκανδαλίσῃ ἕνα τῶν μικρῶν τούτων τῶν πιστευόντων), it would be better for them (καλόν ἐστιν αὐτῷ μᾶλλον) to fasten a great heavy millstone around their necks (εἰ περίκειται μύλος ὀνικὸς περὶ τὸν τράχηλον αὐτοῦ). They should be thrown or cast into the deep sea (καὶ βέβληται εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν). Causing the believing little children to sin meant it was better for that person to die in deep water with a heavy millstone around their neck. This millstone was a stone for grinding various grains.
Matthew is the only one to explicitly describe the actions and the angel at the tomb. In Mark, chapter 16:5, the women found a young man with a white robe sitting in the tomb, while in Luke, chapter 24:4, there were 2 men in dazzling clothes standing in the tomb. John, chapter 20:11-13, had 2 angels talk to Mary Magdalene in the tomb. Matthew uniquely said that an angel of the Lord (ἄγγελος γὰρ Κυρίου) descended from heaven (καταβὰς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ). He came and rolled back the stone (καὶ προσελθὼν ἀπεκύλισεν τὸν λίθον), so that he was sitting on this stone (καὶ ἐκάθητο ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ). He looked like a bright flash of lightning (ἦν δὲ ἡ εἰδέα αὐτοῦ ὡς ἀστραπὴ) because his clothing was as white as snow (καὶ τὸ ἔνδυμα αὐτοῦ λευκὸν ὡς χιών). Once again, Matthew was more dramatic in his descriptions.