Eating with a sinner (Lk 19:7-19:7)

“All who saw it

Began to grumble.

They said.

‘Jesus has gone

To be the guest,

Of one who is a sinner.’”

 

καὶ ἰδόντες πάντες διεγόγγυζον λέγοντες ὅτι Παρὰ ἁμαρτωλῷ ἀνδρὶ εἰσῆλθεν καταλῦσαι.

 

Luke indicated that everyone who saw this (καὶ ἰδόντες πάντες) began to grumble (διεγόγγυζον).  They said (λέγοντες) that Jesus had gone to stay with a sinful man (ὅτι Παρὰ ἁμαρτωλῷ ἀνδρὶ εἰσῆλθεν καταλῦσαι).  Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use the term διεγόγγυζον, that means to murmur among themselves, murmur greatly, or continue murmuring.  All the people knew that Zacchaeus was the chief tax collector and thus working with and for the foreign governing Romans.  These tax collectors were more political and distained because of their corruption and wealth.  Now Jesus was going to stay with what many considered a public sinner, a tax collector.  Luke was the only synoptic with this story of Zacchaeus, the chief tax collector.  Would you stay with someone who was a known public sinner?

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Remain in the same house (Lk 10:7-10:7)

“Remain

In the same house!

Eat

Whatever they provide!

Drink

Whatever they provide!

The laborer

Deserves to be paid.

Do not move about

From house to house!”

 

ἐν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ οἰκίᾳ μένετε, ἔσθοντες καὶ πίνοντες τὰ παρ’ αὐτῶν· ἄξιος γὰρ ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ. μὴ μεταβαίνετε ἐξ οἰκίας εἰς οἰκίαν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to the 70 disciples that they were to remain in the same house (ἐν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ οἰκίᾳ μένετε).  They should eat (ἔσθοντες) and drink (καὶ πίνοντες) whatever they were provided (τὰ παρ’ αὐτῶν).  Jesus said that the laborer deserved to be paid or was worthy of his wages (ἄξιος γὰρ ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ).  They were not to move around (μὴ μεταβαίνετε) from house to house (ἐξ οἰκίας εἰς οἰκίαν).  This is similar to what Luke, chapter 9:4 indicated that Jesus said to his 12 apostles.  There Jesus told the apostles that whatever house they entered, they were to stay there and leave from there.  Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:11, and Mark, chapter 6:10.  Mark indicated that Jesus had a very simple message about where to stay.  Wherever they entered a house, they should stay there in one place until they left.  They should not switch places.  Matthew also had Jesus give a very simple message about where to stay when they entered a town or village.  They should try to find a place to stay with someone who was worthy, honorable, or suitable.  They should not switch places.  They should stay in that one place until they left.  They were not to go wandering around.  Find a suitable person and place!  Then stay there!  This message to the 12 apostles and 70 disciples was the same.  Matthew, chapter 10:10 also indicated that these laborers deserved their food, just like Luke here.  Luke even indicated that they should eat and drink whatever they get, and not be picky.  Where do you stay when you travel?

Peter wants to make three tents (Lk 9:33-9:33)

“Just as they were

Leaving,

Peter said

To Jesus.

‘Master!

It is good

For us

To be here.

Let us make

Three tents,

One for you,

One for Moses,

And one for Elijah.’

He did not know

What he said.”

 

καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ εἶπεν ὁ Πέτρος πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν Ἐπιστάτα, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν σκηνὰς τρεῖς, μίαν σοὶ καὶ μίαν Μωϋσεῖ καὶ μίαν Ἡλείᾳ, μὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει.

 

Luke said that just as Moses and Elijah were leaving Jesus (καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ), Peter said to Jesus (εἶπεν ὁ Πέτρος πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν), calling him “Master (Ἐπιστάτα)” that it was a good that they were there (καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι).  He wanted to make 3 tents, tabernacles, or dwellings (καὶ ποιήσωμεν σκηνὰς τρεῖς), one for Jesus (μίαν σοὶ), one for Moses (καὶ μίαν Μωϋσεῖ), and one for Elijah (καὶ μίαν Ἡλείᾳ).  Apparently, Luke thought that Peter did not know what he was talking about (μὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει).  Peter thought that Moses and Elijah were going to stay there.  These remarks of Peter can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:4, Mark, chapter 9:5, and here in LukeMark said that Peter responded to Jesus as the leader of this small group of apostles.  He called Jesus “Rabbi (Ῥαββεί)” or “Teacher”, not like Matthew as “Lord (Κύριε)” or like Luke, “Master (Ἐπιστάτα)”.  Peter said that it was good for them to be there, so that he was going to set up 3 tents or dwellings there, one for Jesus, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.  Peter was really the builder.  There was no negative comment in Mark, like in LukeMatthew said that Peter responded, once again as the leader of this small group of apostles.  He spoke to Jesus as the Lord (Κύριε).  It was good for them to be there.  If Jesus wanted it, Peter was going to set up 3 tents or dwellings here, one for Jesus, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.  Matthew did not make any disparaging remark about Peter either, the way that Luke had done.  How would you remember an important event?

Stay where you go (Lk 9:4-9:4)

“Whatever house

You enter,

Stay there!

Leave from there!”

 

καὶ εἰς ἣν ἂν οἰκίαν εἰσέλθητε, ἐκεῖ μένετε καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἐξέρχεσθε.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to his 12 apostles that whatever house they entered (καὶ εἰς ἣν ἂν οἰκίαν εἰσέλθητε), they were to stay there (ἐκεῖ μένετε) and leave from there (καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἐξέρχεσθε).  Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:11, and Mark, chapter 6:10.  Mark indicated that Jesus had a very simple message about where to stay.  Wherever they entered a house, they should stay there in one place until they left.  They should not switch places.  Matthew also had Jesus give a very simple message about where to stay when they entered a town or village.  They should try to find a place to stay with someone who was worthy, honorable, or suitable.  They should not switch places.  They should stay in that one place until they left.  They were not to go wandering around.  Find a suitable person and place and stay there.  Where do you stay when you travel?

The Spirit descended on Jesus (Mk 1:10-1:10)

“Just as he was coming up

Out of the water,

He saw

The heavens

Torn apart.

The Spirit

Descended upon him

Like a dove.”

 

καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν·

 

The role of the Holy Spirit at the baptism of Jesus was very important.  The four gospel stories show what happened to Jesus after he had been baptized Matthew, chapter 3:16, Luke, chapter 3:21-22, and John, chapter 1:32, are almost word for word the same as here.  John did not mention a dove, while Luke called it a bodily form of a dove.  Mark said that just as Jesus was coming up out of the water (καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος), he saw the heavens torn apart (εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς).  The Spirit descended upon him like a dove (καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν).  The heavens opened up or broke open was a theme found among the prophets Isaiah, chapter 63:19, and Ezekiel, chapter 1:1.  As Jesus came up from the water, not during the baptism itself, the Holy Spirit, as a dove, came to stay on Jesus.  Just as the dove after the great flood in Genesis, chapter 8:8-12, heralded a new age, so too Jesus would preach the good news in this new age.  With his prophetic vocation, Jesus was anointed with power to begin his public ministry of healing and exorcising.  The later concept of the anointing of Jesus with the Spirit referred to this action of the dove, after his baptism in the Jordan.  There was a clear distinction between the baptism of Jesus himself, and the specific dove bestowal of the Spirit that followed.  Despite the fact that there was no indication of any real anointing in any of these baptismal accounts of Jesus, the coming of the Spirit, in the form of a dove, was considered a symbolic anointing of Jesus within the Judaic prophetic line.  This incident functioned as the basis for an understanding of Jesus’ metaphorical anointing as “the anointed one,” “Christ.”  This symbolic metaphorical anointing action gathered many of the Hebrew bible strands of a messianic king, a sacerdotal high priest, a servant, and a prophet into this one event.   Within this process, the messianic time began with a pre-figuration of what was going to take place at the later Pentecost event, when the fullness of the Spirit came to all the followers of Jesus.

Where to stay (Mt 10:11-10:11)

“Whatever town

Or village

You enter,

Find out

Who in it

Is worthy.

Stay there

Until you leave.”

 

εἰς ἣν δ’ ἂν πόλιν ἢ κώμην εἰσέλθητε, ἐξετάσατε τίς ἐν αὐτῇ ἄξιός ἐστιν· κἀκεῖ μείνατε ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε.

 

Equivalent passages to this can be found in Mark, chapter 6:10, and Luke, chapter 9:4.  Jesus has a very simple message about where to stay when they entered a town (εἰς ἣν δ’ ἂν πόλιν) or village (ἢ κώμην εἰσέλθητε).  They should inquire (ἐξετάσατε) to find out a place to stay with someone who is worthy, honorable, or suitable (τίς ἐν αὐτῇ ἄξιός ἐστιν).  They should not switch places.  They should stay in one place until they left (κἀκεῖ μείνατε ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε).  They were not to go wandering around.  Find a suitable person and place and stay there.

The captivity in Babylon (Bar 6:2-6:3)

“Because of the sins

That you have committed

Before God,

You will be taken

To Babylon

As exiles

By King Nebuchadnezzar,

The king of the Babylonians.

Therefore

When you have come

To Babylon,

You will remain there

For many years,

For a long time,

Up to seven generations.

After that,

I will bring you

Away from there

In peace.”

This letter presents the traditional view that they were being sent into exile because of the sins that they had committed. King Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the Babylonians was going to take them to Babylon where they might stay for a long time, many years, possibly 7 generations, and not 70 years as in Jeremiah, chapter 29. After that they would leave in peace.