The prophets of old (Lk 1:70-1:70)

“God spoke

Through the mouth

Of his holy prophets

From of old.”

 

καθὼς ἐλάλησεν διὰ στόματος τῶν ἁγίων ἀπ’ αἰῶνος προφητῶν αὐτοῦ

 

Luke indicated that Zechariah said that God had spoken (καθὼς ἐλάλησεν) through the mouth (διὰ στόματος) of his former older holy prophets (τῶν ἁγίων ἀπ’ αἰῶνος προφητῶν αὐτοῦ).  These ancient prophets were servants or messengers of God.  Here the term holy was applied to them when it was usually associated with the holy covenant.

Zechariah is filled with the Holy Spirit (Lk 1:67-1:67)

“Then his father,

Zechariah,

Was filled with

The Holy Spirit.

He spoke

This prophesy.”

 

Καὶ Ζαχαρίας ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου καὶ ἐπροφήτευσεν λέγων

 

Luke indicated that Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit, just like John, Mary, and Elizabeth, earlier in this chapter, in verses 15, 35, and 41.  This gift of the Holy Spirit was tied to prophecy just as in Joel, chapter 2:28, where there was an outpouring of the Spirit upon all humans, the young men, the sons, the young women, and the daughters.  These young people would prophesize, while the old men would dream dreams.  The young men would see visions.  Even the male and female slaves would receive this outpouring of the Spirit.  Luke has this outpouring of the Spirit when Peter talked in the Acts of the Apostles.  Here Luke said that John’s father (ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ), Zechariah (Καὶ Ζαχαρίας), was filled with the Holy Spirit (ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου).  Thus, Zechariah spoke this prophesy (καὶ ἐπροφήτευσεν λέγων).

 

What should I do with Jesus? (Mk 15:12-15:12)

“Pilate spoke

To them again.

‘Then what do

You wish me

To do

With the man

You call

The King of the Jews?’”

 

ὁ δὲ Πειλᾶτος πάλιν ἀποκριθεὶς ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Τί οὖν ποιήσω ὃν λέγετε τὸν Βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων;

 

Something similar to this dialogue between Pilate and the crowd can be found in Matthew, chapter 27:22.  Mark said that Pilate again asked the crowd (ὁ δὲ Πειλᾶτος πάλιν ἀποκριθεὶς ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) what did they want him to do with the man called the King of the Jews (Τί οὖν ποιήσω ὃν λέγετε τὸν Βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων).  Pilate seemed very concerned about this Jewish crowd and its wishes.  Where do you stand?

Are you the King of the Jews? (Mk 15:2-15:2)

“Pilate asked Jesus.

‘Are you

The King of the Jews?’

Jesus answered him.

‘You say so.’”

 

καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτὸν ὁ Πειλᾶτος Σὺ εἶ ὁ Βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτῷ λέγει Σὺ λέγεις. 

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 27:11.  Luke, chapter 23:3, is similar, but there is a longer introduction before Pilate spoke.  In John, chapter 18:33-35 there was a longer discussion between Jesus and Pilate.  Mark said that Pilate asked Jesus (καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτὸν ὁ Πειλᾶτος).  He wanted to know if Jesus was the “King of the Jews (Σὺ εἶ ὁ Βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων).”  If Jesus responded that he was, then he could be considered a threat to the ruling Roman authority.  Instead, Jesus had a simple reply (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτῷ λέγει) that if he Pilate had said so, then it must be so (Σὺ λέγεις).  Jesus would only confirm what Pilate had said, without saying it explicitly himself.  Thus, Jesus was identified as the King of the Jews, or leading a political rebellion against the Roman authorities, without saying so himself.  Are you reluctant to speak out?

The God of Abraham (Mk 12:26-12:26)

“As for the dead

Being raised,

Have you not read

The book of Moses?

In the story

About the bush,

How God said

To him.

‘I am the God of Abraham.

I am the God of Isaac.

I am the God of Jacob.’”

 

περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται, οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Θεὸς λέγων Ἐγὼ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ;

 

Jesus continued his explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:31-32, and Luke, chapter 20:37.  They all refer to Moses at the burning bush, a mysterious theophany that overwhelmed Moses, but is not explicitly mentioned here.  However, this was implied by the comment about God based on Exodus, chapter 3:6.  Mark said that the dead will rise up (περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται).  Jesus reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct book of Moses (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως), and not “the sayings of God” as in Matthew.  Jesus then referenced this saying of Yahweh to Moses in Exodus, chapter 3:1-6, about the burning bush (ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου).  Yahweh God spoke to Moses saying (πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ λέγων) that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ).

They butter up Jesus (Mk 12:14-12:14)

“They came.

They said

To Jesus.

‘Teacher!

We know

That you are sincere.

You show deference

To no one.

You do not regard

People

With partiality.

But you teach

The way of God

In accordance

With truth.’”

 

καὶ ἐλθόντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός· οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ διδάσκεις·

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:16, and Luke, chapter 20:21, almost word for word.  Mark said that the Pharisees and the Herodians came and spoke to Jesus (καὶ ἐλθόντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ).  They called Jesus their teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε).  They said that they knew that Jesus was sincere or truthful (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς), because Jesus did not show any deference to anybody (εἶ καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός).  He did not regard people with partiality based on their appearances (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων).  Thus, Jesus taught the truthful way of God (ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ διδάσκεις).  They were buttering him up with these flattering statements about how he was so sincere and truthful, since he had not shown any deference or partiality to anybody.

 

No more eating fruit from this tree (Mk 11:14-11:14)

“Jesus said

To the fig tree.

‘May no one

Ever eat fruit

From you again.’

His disciples heard it.”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῇ Μηκέτι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἐκ σοῦ μηδεὶς καρπὸν φάγοι. καὶ ἤκουον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ.

 

This story about Jesus cursing the fig tree can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:19.  Jesus spoke to the fig tree as if it were a person, since he used the second person singular talking to the tree.  He responded to the tree (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς).  He told the tree that no one would be able to eat the fruit from that tree again (εἶπεν αὐτῇ Μηκέτι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἐκ σοῦ μηδεὶς καρπὸν φάγοι).  Instead of the instant withering of the tree, as in Matthew, Mark has only the mild comment that his disciples had heard what Jesus had said (καὶ ἤκουον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ).  There was no discussion of how wonderful it was, as in Matthew.

What are you doing? (Mk 11:5-11:5)

“Some of the bystanders

Said to them.

‘What are you doing?

Why are you

Untying the colt?’”

 

καί τινες τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων ἔλεγον αὐτοῖς Τί ποιεῖτε λύοντες τὸν πῶλον;

 

This is similar to Luke, chapter 19:33.  Mark said that some of the bystanders (καί τινες τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων) spoke to Jesus’ 2 unnamed disciples (ἔλεγον αὐτοῖς).  They asked them what they were doing (Τί ποιεῖτε)?  Why were they untying the colt (λύοντες τὸν πῶλον)?  Jesus had told them to expect these kinds of questions.

They want to sit on the right and left of Jesus (Mk 10:37-10:37)

“They said

To Jesus.

‘Grant us

To sit,

One at your right hand

And one at your left hand,

In your glory.’”

 

οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Δὸς ἡμῖν ἵνα εἷς σου ἐκ δεξιῶν καὶ εἷς ἐξ ἀριστερῶν καθίσωμεν ἐν τῇ δόξῃ σου.

 

There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 20:21, but here the brothers, rather than their mother spoke with Jesus.  Mark said that the 2 brothers responded to Jesus (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ).  They wanted him to let them sit at his right hand (Δὸς ἡμῖν ἵνα εἷς σου ἐκ δεξιῶν) and at his left hand (καὶ εἷς ἐξ ἀριστερῶν καθίσωμεν) when Jesus came in all his glory (ἐν τῇ δόξῃ σου).  After all, they had been with Peter at the transfiguration and were among the four original disciples.  Thus, they were already very special.  Perhaps, they thought of this as an earthly kingdom.  Ironically enough at the crucifixion of Jesus, it would be two thieves on the right and left side of Jesus.

Jesus wants to know what they want (Mk 10:36-10:36)

“Jesus said

To them.

‘What is it

You want me

To do for you?’”

 

ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί θέλετε με ποιήσω ὑμῖν;

 

There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 20:2, but here the brothers, rather than their mother spoke with Jesus.  Mark said that Jesus then asked the 2 brothers, (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) what they wanted or wished Jesus to do for them (Τί θέλετε με ποιήσω ὑμῖν)?  Jesus willingly responded to them.  He wanted to know what was on their minds.