Luke indicated that Jesus justified the resurrection, that the dead are raised up (ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροὶ). Jesus used the example of Moses at the thorn bush (καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς Βάτου), when he called Yahweh or the Lord (ὡς λέγει Κύριον) the God of Abraham (τὸν Θεὸν Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰακώβ). Jesus continued with this same explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:31-32, and Mark, chapter 12:26. They all refer to Moses at the burning bush in Exodus, chapter 3:6, a mysterious theophany, that is implied without being explicitly mentioned here. Mark indicated that Jesus said that the dead will rise up (περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται). Jesus then reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct book of Moses (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως). Jesus then referenced this saying of Yahweh to Moses at the bush (ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου). Yahweh God spoke to Moses saying (πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ λέγων) that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ). Matthew indicated that Jesus reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct sayings of God (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑμῖν ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ λέγοντος), concerning the resurrection of the dead (περὶ δὲ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῶν νεκρῶν). He did not say “the correct book” as in Mark. He then referenced the saying of Yahweh to Moses at the burning bush, that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ). Do you believe in your resurrection in the afterlife?
Luke indicated that this group questioned Jesus (καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν) respectfully, calling him teacher (λέγοντες Διδάσκαλε). They knew that Jesus spoke correctly (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ὀρθῶς λέγεις) and taught correctly (καὶ διδάσκεις). Jesus did not receive anyone (καὶ οὐ λαμβάνεις πρόσωπον), except on the basis of truth (ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας), because he taught (διδάσκεις) the way of God (τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ). This was similar to Matthew, chapter 22:16, and Mark, chapter 12:14, almost word for word. Mark said that the Pharisees and the Herodians came and spoke to Jesus (καὶ ἐλθόντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ). They called Jesus their teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε). They said that they knew that Jesus was sincere or truthful (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς), because Jesus did not show any deference to anybody (εἶ καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός). He did not regard people with partiality based on their appearances (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων). Thus, Jesus taught the truthful way of God (ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ διδάσκεις). Matthew said that the Pharisees sent their own disciples, not themselves, to Jesus (καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν). But they also sent along some Herodians (μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν) also, the followers or political supporters of King Herod Antipas, the Roman client tetrarch king of Galilee, the one who had John the Baptist beheaded. This group spoke to Jesus in flattering terms (λέγοντας). They called Jesus their teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε,). They said that they knew that Jesus was sincere or truthful, since he knew the truthful way of God (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ). He taught truthfulness (ἐν ἀληθείᾳ διδάσκεις). Jesus did not show any deference to anybody (καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός). He did not regard people with partiality based on their appearances (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων). They were buttering up Jesus with these flattering statements about how he was so sincere and truthful, since he had not shown any deference or partiality to anybody. Do you flatter people to trick them?
Only Luke mentioned this problem with the Pharisees. Some of the Pharisees (καί τινες τῶν Φαρισαίων) who were in the crowd (ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου) spoke to Jesus (εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν), calling him teacher (Διδάσκαλε). They asked him to contain, rebuke, or order his disciples to stop (ἐπιτίμησον τοῖς μαθηταῖς σου) with their shouts. Notice that Luke mentioned that these Pharisees were in the crowd with his disciples. They also were respectful, calling Jesus a teacher. However, they wanted his disciples to stop this public display of affection for Jesus. They felt that only Jesus could put an end to this boisterous celebration. Have you ever been to an outdoor religious celebration?
Luke said that Jesus was casting out a demon (Καὶ ἦν ἐκβάλλων δαιμόνιον) who was in a mute person (καὶ αὐτὸ ἦν κωφόν). When the demon had left (ἐγένετο δὲ τοῦ δαιμονίου ἐξελθόντος), the mute person spoke (ἐλάλησεν ὁ κωφός). The crowds were amazed (καὶ ἐθαύμασαν οἱ ὄχλοι). There was something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 9:32-33, and Matthew, chapter 12:22-23. In chapter 9, Matthew said that Jesus was going on his way, when someone brought a mute or non-speaking demoniac person to him. Jesus then cast out the demon from this man, so that this mute person began to speak. The crowds marveled in awe at this happening. They said that nothing like this had ever happened in Israel. However, in chapter 8:28-33, Matthew had Jesus cast out demons from the demoniacs and send them into the pigs, but that was on the east side of the Jordan River. In chapter 12 of Matthew, a man, possessed by the devil was both mute and blind. Jesus then healed him, but there was no mention of casting out a demon from this man, although that could be assumed. Then this mute and blind person began to speak and see, with the emphasis on healing, not on exorcising. This crowd was also amazed or astonished about what they saw. They wondered whether Jesus was the Son of David. The historical son of David was Solomon, who also had healing powers. “Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ)” was also a royal or messianic name. However, here in Luke, exorcising the demon was important, rather than healing or any messianic expectation. Have you ever seen a mute person speak?
Luke said that Jesus became aware of their inner heart thoughts (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἰδὼς τὸν διαλογισμὸν τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν). He took a little child (ἐπιλαβόμενος παιδίον). He put this child by his side (ἔστησεν αὐτὸ παρ’ ἑαυτῷ). This talk about Jesus and the little child can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:2, as well as Mark, chapters 9:36, with some changes. Mark said that Jesus took a little child. He then placed this little child in the middle or among his disciples. He held the child in his arms and then he spoke to his apostles. Matthew indicated that Jesus put an emphasis on becoming like little children to enter the kingdom of heaven. Jesus called or summoned a little child. He placed this little child in the middle of his disciples. Then he made a solemn proclamation that they had to change or convert to become like little children. Otherwise, they would never enter the kingdom of heaven Whoever became humble like this little child in their midst, would be the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. The greatest in heaven would be the simple humble little children or those who acted like children, without power and depending on other people. What do you think the role of children should be?
Luke said that the crowds found out where Jesus was (οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι γνόντες) and followed him (ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ). Thus, Jesus welcomed them (καὶ ἀποδεξάμενος αὐτοὺς) and spoke to them (ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς) about the kingdom of God (περὶ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ). He healed those who needed to be cured (καὶ τοὺς χρείαν ἔχοντας θεραπείας ἰᾶτο). A similar statement can be found in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:14, Mark chapter 6:34, and John, chapter 6:2, plus here. Jesus continued his mission of compassion. Mark said that when Jesus went ashore, he saw a great crowd, without any indication of the size of this crowd. He then had compassion for them. However, instead of curing the people as in Matthew and Luke,Mark had Jesus talk to them as being sheep without a shepherd, as in Matthew, chapter 9:36. Then Jesus began to teach the people many things, rather than heal them. The emphasis in Mark here was on teaching rather than healing. Matthew, on the other hand, said that Jesus continued his mission of compassion by curing the ill and the sick people. When Jesus went ashore, he saw a great crowd. He then had compassion for them, so that he cured the feeble and ill people. One of the great acts of kindness of Jesus was curing people of their diseases or sicknesses. How do you treat sick people?
Luke continued to emphasize the popularity of Jesus. He said that a great crowd gathered around Jesus (Συνιόντος δὲ ὄχλου πολλοῦ). People from many towns came to him (καὶ τῶν κατὰ πόλιν ἐπιπορευομένων πρὸς αὐτὸν) so that he spoke to them in a parable (εἶπεν διὰ παραβολῆς). A similar statement can be found in Matthew, chapter 13:1, and Mark, chapter 4:1. Mark indicated that Jesus began to teach beside the Sea of Galilee. As a great crowd assembled around him, Jesus got into a boat. He then sat there in the boat, while the whole crowd was on the beach shore land. Matthew said that Jesus sat beside the Sea of Galilee, in the usual gesture of teaching. But he also had Jesus get into a boat because of the crowds. Luke did not indicate where Jesus was, except that there was a large crowd from many different towns. He never mentioned the Sea of Galilee or any boat, since he was more concerned about this parable. Do you like parables?
Luke said that Jesus turned toward the woman (καὶ στραφεὶς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα), but he spoke to Simon (τῷ Σίμωνι ἔφη) in the second person singular. Did he see this woman (Βλέπεις ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα)? Jesus had entered his house (εἰσῆλθόν σου εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν), but he had not given him any water for his feet (ὕδωρ μοι ἐπὶ πόδας οὐκ ἔδωκας). However, she bathed and wiped his feet with her tears (αὕτη δὲ τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξέν μου τοὺς πόδας). She then dried his feet with her hair (καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς ἐξέμαξεν). Jesus compared what she had done to him and what Simon, the Pharisee, the host of this dinner party, had failed to do. In both Mark, chapter 14:6, and Matthew, chapter 26:10, Jesus said that the women had done a good thing, but without any reprimand of the host, Simon the leper, like here. Have you ever complained to the host or hostess at a dinner party?
This story of Jesus astonishing the people in Nazareth can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 6:2, and Matthew, chapter 13:54, and Luke here. Luke said that all the people in the synagogue spoke well or testified in favor of Jesus (καὶ πάντες ἐμαρτύρουν αὐτῷ). They were amazed at the gracious words (καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος) that came from his mouth (τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ). At first, they were excited about how good Jesus was. Then they said (καὶ ἔλεγον) was he not Joseph’s son (Οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος)? Thus, they were astonished and wondered where did he get all his wisdom. They seemed surprised that Jesus was so smart or so important. They would have known him for some time as merely the son of Joseph in Nazareth.
Once again, this is the same as Matthew, chapter 4:3, nearly word for word. Luke said that this devil spoke to Jesus (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ διάβολος) after he had endured this 40 day fast. Jesus was really hungry at this time. Then this devil taunted Jesus by telling him that if he was truly the son of God (Εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ), he could just say the word and make a stone turn into a loaf of bread (εἰπὲ τῷ λίθῳ τούτῳ ἵνα γένηται ἄρτος). Then Jesus could eat this loaf of bread and take away his hunger. This terminology of the “Son of God” indicated a special relationship with God. Matthew called this devil, the tempter.