Luke indicated that Jesus said that he would give them (ἐγὼ γὰρ δώσω ὑμῖν) words or more precisely a mouth to speak (στόμα) wisdom (καὶ σοφίαν) that none of their opponents (ᾗ οὐ… ἅπαντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι ὑμῖν) would be able to withstand (δυνήσονται ἀντιστῆναι) or contradict (ἀντειπεῖν). Mark chapter 13:11, and Matthew, chapter 10:20, had a somewhat similar saying of Jesus. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they were to say (τοῦτο λαλεῖτε) whatever would be given to them (ἀλλ’ ὃ ἐὰν δοθῇ ὑμῖν) at that hour in time (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ). They would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ἐστε ὑμεῖς οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Holy Spirit would be speaking (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον) for them. Matthew, also indicated that Jesus said that they would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Spirit of their Father would be speaking through them (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ὑμῖν). Both Mark and Matthew emphasized that the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Father, would speak for them and through them, so that they did not have to worry or prepare anything beforehand. Luke never mentioned the Holy Spirit, who otherwise appeared quite often in this gospel, like Mark and Matthew did. Instead, Luke emphasized that Jesus himself would give them important words of wisdom. Have you ever gotten words from the Holy Spirit?
Luke said that some people were speaking about the Temple (Καί τινων λεγόντων περὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ), since it was adorned with beautiful stones (ὅτι λίθοις καλοῖς), gifts dedicated to God (καὶ ἀναθήμασιν κεκόσμηται). Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use the word ἀναθήμασιν that means a gift or offering dedicated in a temple by a worshipper or a gift or offering consecrated to God. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:1, and Mark, chapter 13:1. Mark said that Jesus was leaving the Temple (Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ). Then one of his disciples (λέγει αὐτῷ εἷς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ) pointed out to him the beautiful Temple buildings. This unnamed disciple called him teacher (Διδάσκαλε). He wanted Jesus to see and look at the wonderful or great stones and buildings (ἴδε ποταποὶ λίθοι καὶ ποταπαὶ οἰκοδομαί). Matthew, like Mark, indicated that Jesus came out of the Temple (Καὶ ἐξελθὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱεροῦ). As he was going away (ἐπορεύετο), his disciples came up to him to point out the beautiful Temple buildings (καὶ προσῆλθον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἐπιδεῖξαι αὐτῷ τὰς οἰκοδομὰς τοῦ ἱεροῦ). The Jerusalem Temple had been under reconstruction since the time of Herod the Great in 19 BCE, but would not have been completed at the time of Jesus, since it was only finished in 63 CE. However, most of the work would have been done by the time of Jesus. Just like many churches, this Temple was not completed in a few years. Do you know of any churches that took a long time to build or rebuild?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that salt was good (Καλὸν οὖν τὸ ἅλας). But if the salt has lost its taste (ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ), how can its saltiness be restored or re-seasoned (ἐν τίνι ἀρτυθήσεται)? This saying of Jesus can be found in Mark, chapter 9:50, and Matthew, chapter 5:13. Salt was important not just as a spice and preservative, but it represented wisdom and purity in the ancient world and Judaism. Matthew had Jesus turn to his disciples to remind them that they were the salt of the earth or the land (Ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς). The other two gospel writers just had statements about salt, rather than speaking explicitly to the disciples. Matthew switched to the 3rd person from the 2nd person, when he explained about salt losing its taste (ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ). How can that taste be restored to the salt (ἐν τίνι ἁλισθήσεται)? Mark indicated that Jesus said that salt was good (καλὸν τὸ ἅλας). However, if the salt has lost its taste or saltiness (ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας ἄναλον γένηται), if it is insipid, how can the taste be restored to the salt (ἐν τίνι αὐτὸ ἀρτύσετε)? How can you season the salt?
Luke had Jesus explain why they should not worry. The Holy Spirit (τὸ γὰρ Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα) would teach them (διδάξει ὑμᾶς) at that very hour (ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ) what they ought to say (ἃ δεῖ εἰπεῖ). Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:20, and Mark chapter 13:11. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they were to say (τοῦτο λαλεῖτε) whatever would be given to them (ἀλλ’ ὃ ἐὰν δοθῇ ὑμῖν) at that hour (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ). They would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ἐστε ὑμεῖς οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Holy Spirit would be speaking (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον) for them. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that it would be given to them (δοθήσεται γὰρ ὑμῖν) in that hour (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ) what they should say (τί λαλήσητε). They would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Spirit of their Father would be speaking through them (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ὑμῖν). In other words, the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Father, would speak for them and through them, so that they did not have to worry or prepare anything beforehand. Luke had the Holy Spirit teaching them, while Mark and Matthew had the Holy Spirit speaking for them. What do you know about the Holy Spirit?
Luke uniquely indicated that while Jesus was speaking (Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι), a Pharisee invited Jesus (ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος) to dine with him (ὅπως ἀριστήσῃ παρ’ αὐτῷ). Thus, Jesus went in and took his place reclining at the table (εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν). This is the second of 3 times that Jesus will uniquely have a dinner with a Pharisee, earlier in chapter 7:36 and later in chapter 14:1. Earlier Luke had said that one of the Pharisees asked Jesus to eat with him. Thus, Jesus went into the Pharisee’s house. He took his place reclining at the table. Then the sinful woman appeared. In each case, the Pharisees were watching Jesus very closely. However, he must have been on speaking terms with these Jewish leaders to get this invitation. Thus, the hostility with the Pharisees did not seem to be personal but rather theological or philosophical over their interpretation of the divine role in Jewish life. Matthew, chapter 15:1, and Mark, chapter 7:1, had a confrontation with the Pharisees and the Scribes who came to Jesus from Jerusalem. The Pharisees were a political party, a social movement, and a religious school of thought that became the basis for later Rabbinic Judaism. They had their own expert explanations of Jewish law that sometimes appeared to be hypocritical or arrogant, with the letter of the law above its spirit. They had a form of Judaism that extended beyond the Temple. These Pharisees in the New Testament continually engaged in conflicts with Jesus and his disciples. However, here it will be personal confrontation at a dinner party. Do you have dinner with people that you disagree with?
Luke alone has this incident about the woman shouting out in a crowd. Luke said that while Jesus was speaking (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ λέγειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα), a woman in the crowd (γυνὴ ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου) raised her voice (ἐπάρασά τις φωνὴν). She said to Jesus (εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that blessed (Μακαρία) was the womb that bore him (ἡ κοιλία ἡ βαστάσασά σε) and the breasts that nursed him (καὶ μαστοὶ οὓς ἐθήλασας). This woman in the crowd wanted to praise the mother of Jesus because she had borne and nursed Jesus. Jesus’ mother should be blessed, happy or fortunate (Μακαρία), which she was. Luke seemed to pay more attention to women that the other gospel writers. Do you think that women are undervalued?
Luke said that while the young man was coming to Jesus (ἔτι δὲ προσερχομένου αὐτοῦ), the demon threw him down to the ground (ἔρρηξεν αὐτὸν τὸ δαιμόνιον) with convulsions (καὶ συνεσπάραξεν). But Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit (πετίμησεν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἀκαθάρτῳ). He healed the boy (καὶ ἰάσατο τὸν παῖδα). He gave him back to his father (καὶ ἀπέδωκεν αὐτὸν τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ). Both Matthew, chapter 17:18 and Luke here have a summary of a more detailed longer statement from Mark, chapter 9:20-27, about this mute epileptic boy. Mark said that they brought the boy to Jesus. However, when the evil spirit saw Jesus, it immediately convulsed the boy. The boy fell on the ground and began to roll around, foaming at the mouth. In fact, Jesus got to see what the father had described to him earlier. Jesus asked the father of this boy how long had these convulsions been happening to him. The father said that it had been happening since his childhood. This evil spirit would often cast him into both fire and water, as Matthew had mentioned, in order to destroy him. Then the father asked Jesus, if he was able to do anything to help his son. He wanted Jesus to have pity and compassion on him and his son. Jesus said to him that all things could be done for the one who believed. Belief was the key ingredient for any success in this area. The father of the child cried out that he believed, but he wanted help with his unbelief. This was a strong statement of belief that also recognized unbelief at the same time. Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit. He directly commanded this unclean evil spirit that had kept this boy from speaking and hearing to come out of him, never again to enter him. Jesus then got rid of the unclean spirit that was in this boy in a public act in front of a crowd. After crying out and terribly convulsing the boy with spasms, the evil spirit came out of the boy, who became a corpse. Most of the people said that the boy was dead. Could this boy live without the evil spirit in him? Jesus took the boy by the hand. He lifted him up, so that he rose up, and was able to stand up on his feet by himself. The boy was not dead. There was a clear equivalence between the illness of epilepsy and demonic possession. Once the devil or evil spirits had left the boy, he was cured of his various ailments. Have you ever dealt with an epileptic?
Luke said that the 3 men, Jesus, Moses, and Elijah, all appeared in their glory (οἳ ὀφθέντες ἐν δόξῃ). They were speaking about the departure of Jesus (ἔλεγον τὴν ἔξοδον αὐτοῦ) and how it was about to be accomplished (ἣν ἤμελλεν πληροῦν) in Jerusalem (ἐν Ἱερουσαλήμ). This is a unique statement by Luke, since the other synoptics did not mention this. Luke said that these 3 transfigured men, Moses, Elijah, and Jesus, talked about the future departure of Jesus from Jerusalem, in other words, his upcoming death. Have you ever discussed your future death with anyone?
Luke said that while Jesus was still speaking (Ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος), someone from the house of the synagogue leader came (ἔρχεταί τις παρὰ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου) to tell him (λέγων) that his daughter was dead (Τέθνηκεν ἡ θυγάτηρ σου). They should not trouble this teacher anymore (μηκέτι σκύλλε τὸν Διδάσκαλον). Now we are back to the original story about the dying daughter of the synagogue leader. Mark, chapter 5:35, was similar to Luke, almost word for word, while Matthew had this little girl already dead. Mark said that while Jesus was still speaking, some people came from the synagogue leader’s household. They told him that his daughter was dead. Thus, there was no need to trouble the teacher anymore. Notice that they called Jesus “teacher.” The idea of curing the young girl was gone, since she had died. Thus, Matthew was right when he said that she was dead. Have you had a tragic death in your family?
Luke said that just then, a man came (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἦλθεν ἀνὴρ) named Jairus (ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰάειρος), a leader of a synagogue (καὶ οὗτος ἄρχων τῆς συναγωγῆς ὑπῆρχεν). He fell at Jesus’ feet (καὶ πεσὼν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας). He begged Jesus (Ἰησοῦ παρεκάλει αὐτὸν) to come to his house (εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ). This episode about the healing of this synagogue leader’s daughter can also be found in Matthew, chapter 9:18 and Mark, chapter 5:22. Matthew never mentioned his name, Jairus, but Mark did, just like Luke here. Mark said that one of the leaders of a synagogue named Jairus came forward. Seeing Jesus, he fell at the feet of Jesus, as if to worship him. Technically, the Jewish synagogue did not have structured roles, but Jairus was obviously an important person in some unnamed synagogue that might have been close by. Matthew only called this man a generic leader or ruler of a synagogue. Apparently, this took place while Jesus was speaking to the people. This unnamed leader came and knelt before Jesus. Certainly, this was an important Jewish person asking Jesus for help. Do you know the leaders in your Church?