“People will come
They will eat
In the kingdom of God.”
καὶ ἥξουσιν ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν καὶ ἀπὸ βορρᾶ καὶ νότου, καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that people would come from (καὶ ἥξουσιν ἀπὸ) the east (ἀνατολῶν), the west (καὶ δυσμῶν), the north (καὶ ἀπὸ βορρᾶ), and the south (καὶ νότου). They would recline and eat (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) in the kingdom of God (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ). They would come from everywhere. This is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 8:11, perhaps a Q source, who had Jesus say that many people would come from the east and the west (ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν), but not the north or the south, to recline at table (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) during the Messianic feast with the 3 great Hebrew Jewish leaders, Abraham (μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ) in the kingdom of the heavens (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν). Do you think that you will have a place at the Messianic feast?
“When the days
To be taken up,
He set his face
To go to
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ συμπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν τοῦ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ,
Luke said that when the days drew near (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ συμπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας) for Jesus to be taken up (τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ), he steadfastly set his face (καὶ αὐτὸς τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν τοῦ) to go to Jerusalem (πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ). Jesus’ move from Galilee to Judea can also be found in Matthew, chapter 19:1-2, and Mark, chapter 10:1, with Matthew closer to Mark, who said that Jesus left that place, presumably Galilee. He went to the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Thus, Jesus moved south towards Jerusalem. However, he traveled on the other eastern side of the Jordan River, so that he did not have to go into Samaria, just the opposite as here in Luke. Mark, like Matthew, emphasized the crowds that gathered around Jesus. Just as in Galilee, Jesus again began to teach the people in Judea. Mark had Jesus teaching the crowds instead of healing these people, as in Matthew. Matthew said that when Jesus had finished saying these things, he left Galilee and went to the region of Judea, beyond the Jordan. Thus, Jesus moved south towards Jerusalem. However, he traveled on the other side of the Jordan River, on the east side of Jordan, so that he did not have to go into Samaria. He definitely was leaving Galilee. Luke was more definitive on where he was going, since he steadfastly set his face towards Jerusalem. Have you ever decided to go some place?
“In the sixth month,
The angel Gabriel
To a town
Ἐν δὲ τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ ἀπεστάλη ὁ ἄγγελος Γαβριὴλ ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ εἰς πόλιν τῆς Γαλιλαίας ᾗ ὄνομα Ναζαρὲθ,
Luke has the angel Gabriel busy again. He said that in the 6th month (Ἐν δὲ τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ) since the conception of John, God (ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ) sent this angel Gabriel (ἀπεστάλη ὁ ἄγγελος Γαβριὴλ) to a town in Galilee (εἰς πόλιν τῆς Γαλιλαίας), called Nazareth (ᾗ ὄνομα Ναζαρὲθ). Gabriel moved from Jerusalem to Nazareth at the request of God. Galilee was a region in the north, as opposed to Judea that was in the south.
“Jesus left that place.
To the region
Gathered around him.
As was his custom,
He again taught them.”
Καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἀναστὰς ἔρχεται εἰς τὰ ὅρια τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, καὶ συνπορεύονται πάλιν ὄχλοι πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ ὡς εἰώθει πάλιν ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς.
This move from Galilee to Judea can also be found in Matthew, chapter 19:1-2, and Luke, chapter 9:51. Mark said that Jesus rose up and left that place (Καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἀναστὰς), presumably Galilee. He went to the region of Judea (ἔρχεται εἰς τὰ ὅρια τῆς Ἰουδαίας) and beyond the Jordan (καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου). Thus, Jesus moved south towards Jerusalem. However, he traveled on the other eastern side of the Jordan River, so that he did not have to go into Samaria. He definitely was leaving Galilee. Mark, like Matthew, emphasized the crowds that gathered around Jesus again (καὶ συνπορεύονται πάλιν ὄχλοι πρὸς αὐτόν). Just as in Galilee, as was his custom (καὶ ὡς εἰώθει), Jesus again began to teach (πάλιν ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς), the people in these crowds in Judea. Mark had Jesus teaching the crowds instead of healing these people, as in Matthew.
“If your hand
Cut it off!
It is better
To enter life
Than with two hands
And go to hell,
To the unquenchable fire.”
Καὶ ἐὰν σκανδαλίσῃ σε ἡ χείρ σου, ἀπόκοψον αὐτήν· καλόν ἐστίν σε κυλλὸν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν, ἢ τὰς δύο χεῖρας ἔχοντα ἀπελθεῖν εἰς τὴν γέενναν, εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ ἄσβεστον
This saying about better to be maimed than sin can also be found in Matthew chapter 18:8, with some minor changes since he united the hand and foot together. In a rather harsh statement, Mark indicated that Jesus said that if your hand caused you to stumble, sin, or scandalize others (Καὶ ἐὰν σκανδαλίσῃ σε ἡ χείρ σου), cut it off (ἀπόκοψον αὐτήν). It would be better for you to enter life maimed or crippled (καλόν ἐστιν σε κυλλὸν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν) than to have two hands (ἢ δύο χεῖρας). Then you would go away into Gehenna (ἀπελθεῖν εἰς τὴν γέενναν), the unquenchable fire (εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ ἄσβεστον). The Greek word for hell was “γέενναν” or the English Gehenna, based on the Hebrew word Gehinnom. That was the name of the valley south of Jerusalem where burning child sacrifices would take place. You were better off maimed with one hand than being in these everlasting hell fires. Whatever, the temptation, stumbling block, or snare, get rid of it, even if it is one of your own hands.
You brood of vipers!
How can you
ὄφεις, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, πῶς φύγητε ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης;
This attack on the Pharisees and Scribes is somewhat similar to the attack that John the Baptist had against the Pharisees and Sadducees earlier in Matthew, chapter 3:7. When they came to be baptized by John, he was critical of both the Pharisees and the Sadducees. He told them that they were like a group of vipers or poisonous snakes (Γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν), who would kill young people. Here there is no mention of the Sadducees. But the Pharisees and Scribes are called snakes (ὄφεις) and a brood of vipers or a group of poisonous snakes (γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν). Jesus wanted to know how they could escape (πῶς φύγητε) being sentenced to Gehenna or hell (ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης). The Greek word for hell “γέενναν” or the English Gehenna was based on the Hebrew word Gehinnom that was the name of the valley south of Jerusalem where burning child sacrifices would take place.