Your brother has come home (Lk 15:27-15:27)

“The servant replied.

‘Your brother

Has come home.

Your father

Has killed

The fatted calf,

Because he

Got him back

Safe

And sound.’”

 

ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὅτι Ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἥκει, καὶ ἔθυσεν ὁ πατήρ σου τὸν μόσχον τὸν σιτευτόν, ὅτι ὑγιαίνοντα αὐτὸν ἀπέλαβεν.

 

This long parable story about the 2 sons can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that the servant replied to the older son (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that his brother had come home (ὅτι Ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἥκει).  Then his father had killed or sacrificed (καὶ ἔθυσεν ὁ πατήρ σου) the fatted calf (τὸν μόσχον τὸν σιτευτόν), because he had him back safe and sound in good health (ὅτι ὑγιαίνοντα αὐτὸν ἀπέλαβεν).  Once again, Luke is the only biblical writer who used this term σιτευτόν, that means fattened calf, 3 times in this story.  His father was happy to have his other son healthy and back with them.  He was just glad to see him.  Have you ever had a family relative show up unexpectedly?

Your eye (Lk 11:34-11:34)

“Your eye

Is the lamp

Of your body.

If your eye

Is sound,

Your whole body

Is full of light.

But if it is evil,

Your body

Is full of darkness.”

 

ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου. ὅταν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς ᾖ, καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινόν ἐστιν· ἐπὰν δὲ πονηρὸς ᾖ, καὶ τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινόν

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that their eye (ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου) was the lamp of their body (ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν).  If their eye was clear, sound, or healthy (ὅταν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς ᾖ), their whole body would be full of light (καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινόν ἐστιν).  But if it was evil (ἐπὰν δὲ πονηρὸς ᾖ), their body was then full of darkness (καὶ τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινόν).  This saying of Jesus is similar to what was in Matthew, chapter 6:22-23, so that it may be from the Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that the eye was the lamp of the body (Ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός).  If there was a healthy clear sound eye (ἐὰν οὖν ᾖ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς), then you would have a whole body full of light (ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινὸν ἔσται).  This is the only time that the word “ἁπλοῦς” is used in the New Testament literature.  Both Luke and Matthew used it here, since it means simple, sound, clear, or perfect.  If, on the other hand, your eye was not healthy or evil (ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρὸς ᾖ), your whole body would be full of darkness (ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινὸν ἔσται).  Notice that Matthew and Luke did not use the opposite of clear, but chose the more common word for evil, “πονηρὸς.”  Thus, you had an evil eye.  On the other hand, both Luke and Matthew used a word that appears only here, “σκοτεινὸν,” to talk about a full total darkness.  If the light that is in you is dark (εἰ οὖν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστίν), that is a really great darkness (τὸ σκότος πόσον).  Light and darkness was a common theme among the early Christians.  Light was good, but darkness was evil.  The connection of light to the eye was natural, since the sense of blindness and darkness centered around the eyes.  The good-eyed person, like the good-hearted person, was compassionate, while the evil-eyed person, like a hard-hearted person, was selfish and miserly.  Do you have good eyes or evil eyes?

The baby leapt for joy (Lk 1:44-1:44)

“As soon as

I heard

The sound

Of your greeting,

The child

In my womb

Leapt for joy.”

 

ἰδοὺ γὰρ ὡς ἐγένετο ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ σου εἰς τὰ ὦτά μου, ἐσκίρτησεν ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει τὸ βρέφος ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ μου.

 

Luke seems to indicate that Elizabeth knew the answer to her question.  She said that as soon as she heard with her ears the sound of Mary’s greeting (ἰδοὺ γὰρ ὡς ἐγένετο ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ σου εἰς τὰ ὦτά μου), the child or baby in her womb leapt or jumped for joy or exultation (ἐσκίρτησεν ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει τὸ βρέφος ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ μου).  This was a repetition of what was said in verse 41, except that Elizabeth said it here.  John knew Jesus from the very beginning of his existence.

Jesus heals the man’s hand (Mt 12:13-12:13)

“Then Jesus said

To the man.

‘Stretch out your hand.’

He stretched it out.

It was restored,

As sound as the other.”

 

τότε λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ Ἔκτεινόν σου τὴν χεῖρα. καὶ ἐξέτεινεν, καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ὑγιὴς ὡς ἡ ἄλλη.

 

Matthew has Jesus cure the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath.  This is similar to Mark, chapter 3:5, and Luke, chapter 6:10.  After this discussion about the Sabbath, Jesus said to the man with the withered hand (τότε λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ) to stretch out his hand (Ἔκτεινόν σου τὴν χεῖρα).  He then stretched out or extended his hand (καὶ ἐξέτεινεν).  It was restored, so that it was just like his other hand (καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ὑγιὴς ὡς ἡ ἄλλη).  After all this discussion, Jesus finally healed the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath.

A healthy eye (Mt 6:22-6:23)

“The eye is the lamp

Of the body.

So,

If your eye is clear,

Your whole body

Will be full of light.

But if your eye is

Evil,

Your whole body

Will be full of darkness.

If then the light

In you

Is darkness,

How great is that darkness!”

 

Ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός. ἐὰν οὖν ᾖ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς, ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινὸν ἔσται·

ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρὸς ᾖ, ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινὸν ἔσται. εἰ οὖν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστίν, τὸ σκότος πόσον.

 

This saying of Jesus is similar to what is in Luke, chapter 11:34-35, so that it may be from the Q source.  The eye was the lamp of the body (Ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός).  If there was a healthy clear sound eye (ἐὰν οὖν ᾖ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς), then you would have a whole body full of light (ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινὸν ἔσται).  This is the only time that the word “ἁπλοῦς” is used in the New Testament literature.  Both Luke and Matthew used it here, since it means simple, sound, clear, or perfect.  If, on the other hand, your eye was not healthy or evil (ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρὸς ᾖ), your whole body would be full of darkness (ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινὸν ἔσται).  Notice that Matthew did not use the opposite of clear, but chose the more common word for evil, “πονηρὸς.”  Thus, you had an evil eye.  On the other hand, both Luke and Matthew used a word that appears only here, “σκοτεινὸν,” to talk about a full total darkness.  If the light that is in you is dark (εἰ οὖν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστίν), that is a really great darkness (τὸ σκότος πόσον).  Light and darkness was a common theme among the early Christians.  Light was good, but darkness was evil.  The connection of light to the eye was natural since the sense of blindness and darkness centered around the eyes.

Yahweh is on their side (Zech 9:14-9:15)

“Then Yahweh will appear

Over them.

His arrow goes forth

Like lightning.

Yahweh God

Will sound the trumpet.

He will march forth

In the whirlwinds of the south.

Yahweh of hosts

Will protect them.

They shall devour their enemies.

They shall tread down

Those shooting sling shot stones.

They shall drink

Their blood

Like wine.

They will be full of blood

Like a drenched bowl,

As the corners of the altar.”

Yahweh will clearly be on their side.  Yahweh was going to be like a lightning arrow.  He was going to sound the trumpet for them to march forward.  He was going to be like a whirlwind protecting them.  Thus, they would devour their enemies and tread down the sling shot shooters.  They would be so successful that they would drink the blood of their enemies like wine.  Their bowls would be so drenched with blood that it would look like the corners of the sacrificial altars in the Temple.

Assemble everyone (Joel 2:15-2:16)

“Blow the trumpet

In Zion!

Sanctify a fast!

Call a solemn assembly!

Gather the people!

Sanctify the congregation!

Assemble the aged!

Gather the children!

Gather even nursing infants!

Let the bridegroom leave

His room!

Let the bride leave

Her chamber.”

In order to get out of their bad situation, Joel wanted everyone to come together for a solemn assembly. They were to sound the trumpet on Zion for a holy fast. Let everyone know what was going on. They had to gather the people into a sanctified congregation. This also meant the aged and the children, even the nursing children. The newlywed brides and grooms were not exempt either. This was serious business.