Be quiet (Mk 10:48-10:48)

“Many sternly ordered him

To be quiet.

But he cried out

Even more loudly.

‘Son of David!

Have mercy on me!’”

 

καὶ ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ πολλοὶ ἵνα σιωπήσῃ· ὁ δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν Υἱὲ Δαυείδ, ἐλέησόν με.

 

Both Matthew, chapter 20:31, and Luke, chapter 18:39, have something similar.  Mark said that many in the crowd rebuked, admonished, or ordered him to be quiet or silent (καὶ ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ πολλοὶ ἵνα σιωπήσῃ).  But he shouted out even more loudly (ὁ δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν).  He repeated again what he had shouted out earlier.  He called Jesus, the Son of David (Υἱὲ Δαυείδ).  He wanted Jesus to have mercy on them (ἐλέησόν με).  This would become a Christian cry for mercy.

Have mercy on me! (Mk 10:47-10:47

“When Bartimaeus

Heard that it was

Jesus of Nazareth,

He began to shout out.

He said.

‘Jesus!

Son of David!

Have mercy on me!’”

 

καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζαρηνός ἐστιν ἤρξατο κράζειν καὶ λέγειν Υἱὲ Δαυεὶδ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλέησόν με.

 

Both Matthew, chapter 20:30, and Luke, chapter 18:36-38, have something similar, but Matthew had two blind men instead of one as here.  Mark said that Bartimaeus heard that is was Jesus of Nazareth, (καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζαρηνός ἐστιν), not just anyone in general passing by.  Then he began to shout out (ἤρξατο κράζειν).  He said (καὶ λέγειν) that he wanted Jesus, the Son of David (Υἱὲ Δαυεὶδ Ἰησοῦ), to have mercy on him (ἐλέησον με).  He called Jesus the Son of David, not the Lord as in Matthew.

The cry of Jesus (Mt 27:46-27:46)

“About three o’clock,

The ninth hour,

Jesus cried

With a loud voice.

‘Eli!

Eli!

Lema sabachthani?’

That means.

‘My God!

My God!

Why have you

Forsaken me?’”

 

περὶ δὲ τὴν ἐνάτην ὥραν ἀνεβόησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων Ἡλεὶ λεμὰ σαβαχθανεί; τοῦτ’ ἔστιν Θεέ μου θεέ μου, ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες;

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:34.  Luke, chapter 23, and John, chapter 19, do not have these words of Jesus hanging on the cross.  Matthew said that about three o’clock in the afternoon, the ninth hour (περὶ δὲ τὴν ἐνάτην ὥραν), Jesus cried with a loud voice saying (ἀνεβόησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων) “Eli!  Eli!  Lema sabachthani (Ἡλεὶ Ἡλεὶ λεμὰ σαβαχθανεί)?”  Then Matthew explained what this meant (τοῦτ’ ἔστιν).  This was a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic, the Hebrew for God and Aramaic for the first verse from Psalm 22:1.  “My God!  My God (Θεέ μου θεέ μου,)!  Why have you forsaken, abandoned, or deserted me (ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες)?”  This Psalm 22 was a psalm of David asking for help or deliverance from a serious illness or persecution, much like the suffering servant in Isaiah, chapters 52-53.  Thus, Jesus, the suffering servant son of David, quoted the first verse of this psalm as he hung on the cross.  Why was there no help coming from God?

The chief priests were angry (Mt 21:15-21:15)

“The chief priests

And the Scribes

Saw the amazing things

That Jesus did.

The children were crying out

In the Temple.

‘Hosanna to the Son of David!’

They became angry.”

 

ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς τὰ θαυμάσια ἃ ἐποίησεν καὶ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς κράζοντας ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καὶ λέγοντας Ὡσαννὰ τῷ υἱῷ Δαυείδ, ἠγανάκτησαν,

 

This is unique to Matthew, who said that the chief priests and the scribes saw all the amazing and wonderful things that Jesus did (ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς τὰ θαυμάσια ἃ ἐποίησεν).  The children were crying out in the Temple (καὶ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς κράζοντας ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ).  They were saying to Jesus “Hosanna to the son of David (καὶ λέγοντας Ὡσαννὰ τῷ υἱῷ Δαυείδ)!”  These little children seem to praise Jesus and ask him to save them.  Obviously, this made the priests and scribes angry (ἠγανάκτησαν).  Matthew always pitted the Jewish leaders against Jesus since Jesus seemed to challenge their authority.

The two blind men ask for mercy (Mt 20:30-20:31)

“There were two blind men

Sitting by the roadside.

When they heard

That Jesus was passing by,

They shouted out.

‘Lord!

Have mercy on us!

Son of David!”

The crowd rebuked them.

They ordered them

To be quiet.

But they shouted

Even more loudly.

‘Lord!

Have mercy on us!

Son of David!’”

 

καὶ ἰδοὺ δύο τυφλοὶ καθήμενοι παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, ἀκούσαντες ὅτι Ἰησοῦς παράγει, ἔκραξαν λέγοντες Κύριε, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, υἱὸς Δαυείδ.

ὁ δὲ ὄχλος ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα σιωπήσωσιν· οἱ δὲ μεῖζον ἔκραξαν λέγοντες Κύριε, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, υἱὸς Δαυείδ.

 

Both Mark, chapter 10:46-48, and Luke, chapter 18:36-39, have something similar, but they only have one blind man with almost the same cry for mercy.  This story in Matthew has two blind men sitting by the roadside (καὶ ἰδοὺ δύο τυφλοὶ καθήμενοι παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν).  When they heard that Jesus was passing by (ἀκούσαντες ὅτι Ἰησοῦς παράγει), they cried out to him (ἔκραξαν λέγοντες) to have mercy on them (ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς).  They called Jesus the messianic Lord (Κύριε), the Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ).  However, the crowd rebuked or admonished them to be quiet or silent (ὁ δὲ ὄχλος ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα σιωπήσωσιν).  But they shouted out even more loudly (οἱ δὲ μεῖζον ἔκραξαν λέγοντες).  They repeated again what they had shouted out earlier.  They called Jesus, Lord, the Son of David (Κύριε…υἱὸς Δαυείδ).  They wanted him to have mercy on them (ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς).  This Greek cry of “Κύριε, ἐλέησον” “kyrie eleison,” has found its way into the Roman Catholic Liturgy of the Word at the beginning of the regular Sunday Mass service, with the “Lord, have mercy!”  Quite often, it is also part of a chant.

The Canaanite woman (Mt 15:22-15:22)

“Just then,

A Canaanite woman

From that same region

Came out.

She started shouting.

‘Have mercy on me!

Lord!

Son of David!

My daughter

Is possessed

By a demon.’”

 

καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ Χαναναία ἀπὸ τῶν ὁρίων ἐκείνων ἐξελθοῦσα ἔκραζεν λέγουσα Ἐλέησόν με, Κύριε υἱὸς Δαυείδ· ἡ θυγάτηρ μου κακῶς δαιμονίζεται.

 

Mark, chapter 7:24-26, has something similar but there were more details there, as she entered a house.  A gentile Canaanite woman (καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ Χαναναία), from that same coastal region (ἀπὸ τῶν ὁρίων ἐκείνων) appeared on the scene.  The Canaanites, who worshiped Baal, were still the enemies of the Jewish people.  This Canaanite woman came out shouting (ἐξελθοῦσα ἔκραζεν λέγουσα).  She asked Jesus to have mercy on her (Ἐλέησόν με,).  She called Jesus, the Lord (Κύριε), and the Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ), clear Jewish messianic terms.  She said that her daughter was possessed by a demon (ἡ θυγάτηρ μου κακῶς δαιμονίζεται).  She was not asking for a cure for herself, but for her daughter.

The Pharisees compare Jesus to Beelzebul (Mt 12:24-12:24)

“But the Pharisees heard it.

They said.

‘It is only by Beelzebul,

The ruler of the demons,

That this man

Casts out the demons.’”

 

οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἀκούσαντες εἶπον Οὗτος οὐκ ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια εἰ μὴ ἐν τῷ Βεελζεβοὺλ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων.

 

This seems a little out of context since Matthew did not mention casting out a demon, but only curing the mute and blind demoniac.  However, this is similar to Luke, chapter 11:15 and Mark, chapter 3:22, as well as the earlier passages from Matthew, chapters 9:34 and 10:24-25.  Beelzebul was an ancient Canaanite god known as the “Lord of the flies,” but had become another name for the devil or demons in early Christianity and late Judaism.  The Pharisees heard (οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἀκούσαντες) that the people were calling Jesus the “Son of David,” a messianic name.  However, they accused Jesus of being in cahoots with Beelzebul (εἶπον Οὗτος…εἰ μὴ ἐν τῷ Βεελζεβοὺλ), the leader of the demons (ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων).  In other words, Jesus was casting out (οὐκ ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια) demons because he was working with the devil, the leader of the demons, the ancient Canaanite god, Beelzebul.

The crowds were amazed (Mt 12:23-12:23)

“All the crowds

Were amazed.

They said.

‘Can this be

The Son of David?’”

 

καὶ ἐξίσταντο πάντες οἱ ὄχλοι καὶ ἔλεγον Μήτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς Δαυείδ;

 

There is something similar to this earlier in Matthew, chapter 9:8, 9:27, and 9:32.  All these crowds of people were amazed or astonished about what they saw (καὶ ἐξίσταντο πάντες οἱ ὄχλοι).  They wondered whether Jesus was the Son of David (καὶ ἔλεγον Μήτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς Δαυείδ).  The historical son of David was Solomon who also had healing powers.  “Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ)” was also a royal or messianic name.  Once again, the crowds or the “οἱ ὄχλοι” play a major role with Matthew.

The two blind men (Mt 9:27-9:27)

“As Jesus went on

From there,

Two blind men

Followed him.

They cried loudly.

‘Have mercy on us!

Son of David!’”

 

Καὶ παράγοντι ἐκεῖθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠκολούθησαν δύο τυφλοὶ κράζοντες καὶ λέγοντες Ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, υἱὸς Δαυείδ.

 

Not only are there similar stories about blind men found in Mark, chapter 10:46-48, and Luke, chapter 18:35-38, but also in Matthew, chapter 20:29-30, but the other Matthew story took place in Jericho, and not as here in Galilee, near Capernaum.  Jesus was going on his way (Καὶ παράγοντι ἐκεῖθεν), as two blind men were following him (τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠκολούθησαν δύο τυφλοὶ).  They cried out loudly to Jesus to have mercy on them (κράζοντες καὶ λέγοντες Ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς).  They called Jesus the Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ).  The historical son of David was Solomon who also had healing powers.  “Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ)” was also a royal or messianic name.  Blind people (τυφλοὶ) were considered punished for lacking some spiritual uprightness, since there was a connection between spiritual and physical sickness.

The dream of Joseph (Mt 1:20-1:20)

“But just when he resolved

To do this,

An angel of the Lord

Appeared to him

In a dream.

Saying.

‘Joseph!

Son of David!

Do not be afraid

To take Mary

As your wife.

The child conceived

In her is

From the Holy Spirit.”

 

ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐνθυμηθέντος ἰδοὺ ἄγγελος Κυρίου κατ’ ὄναρ ἐφάνη αὐτῷ λέγων Ἰωσὴφ υἱὸς Δαυείδ, μὴ φοβηθῇς παραλαβεῖν Μαρίαν τὴν γυναῖκά σου, τὸ γὰρ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθὲν ἐκ Πνεύματός ἐστιν Ἁγίου·

 

Joseph had resolved (αὐτοῦ ἐνθυμηθέντος) to put away Mary, instead of taking her as his wife. Then an angel of the Lord (ἄγγελος Κυρίου) appeared to him in a dream (ὄναρ ἐφάνη αὐτῷ). This is somewhat reminiscent of Joseph in Egypt, who interpreted dreams, but said that only God could tell them what they meant in Genesis, chapters 40-41. The various Israelite prophets often got their oracle messages in dreams. Notice that it is an angel of the Lord, “Κυρίου.” There will be no mention of Yahweh in the New Testament, since the Greek Old Testament had translated “Yahweh” into “Lord.” However, the sense was that this was God, the Father, the God of the Old Testament. Angels were the messengers of God, especially in the Book of Tobit, chapter 5, where the angel Raphael appeared to him. This angel goes unnamed here, not like the angel Gabriel of Luke, chapter 1. This angel told Joseph, the son of David, not to be afraid (μὴ φοβηθῇς) to take Mary (παραλαβεῖν Μαρίαν) as his wife (τὴν γυναῖκά σου). He had nothing to be worried about. Thus, God, via his angel, was trying to reassure Joseph that everything would be alright. This angel then told Joseph that the child that had been conceived in her (ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθὲν) was from the Holy Spirit (ἐκ Πνεύματός ἐστιν Ἁγίου). In a somewhat awkward phrasing, this text said the conception was from a Spirit that is holy rather than a Holy Spirit as earlier in this text. This shows a developing sense of the divine Holy Spirit.