David calls him
How can he be
Δαυεὶδ οὖν αὐτὸν Κύριον καλεῖ, καὶ πῶς αὐτοῦ υἱός ἐστιν;
Luke left this question unanswered. Jesus asked them, since David called the Messiah Christ Lord (Δαυεὶδ οὖν αὐτὸν Κύριον καλεῖ), how can he be his son (καὶ πῶς αὐτοῦ υἱός ἐστιν)? There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:45-46, and Mark, chapter 12:37. However, there it was a complete victory for Jesus. What did David mean when he called the future Messiah Christ, a son of David? The traditional belief was that the Messiah Christ would be the son or descendant of David. Jesus then posed this big question. Mark indicated that Jesus asked how could David call the Messiah Lord (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν Κύριον) and yet be his son, the son of David (καὶ πόθεν αὐτοῦ ἐστιν υἱός)? This was a trick question. Why would David call his future son or descendant his own Lord or master, or consider him greater? The implication was that Jesus, the Son of Man, and descendant of David, was greater than David. Peter, in fact, repeated this citation of Psalm 110 in his preaching in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2:34-35, also. Only Mark had the comment that a large crowd was listening to Jesus with delight or gladly (Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως). Matthew indicated that neither the Pharisees nor anyone else were able to give him any kind of verbal response (καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο ἀποκριθῆναι αὐτῷ λόγον). Matthew remarked that from that day on (ἀπ’ ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρας), no one dared to ask him any more questions (οὐδὲ ἐτόλμησέν τις…ἐπερωτῆσαι αὐτὸν οὐκέτι), as this was a complete verbal victory for Jesus against the Pharisees. Have you ever left anyone speechless?
In the Book of Psalms.
‘The Lord said
To my Lord.
Sit at my right hand!’”
αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου
Luke had Jesus continue by saying that David himself said that (αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει) in the Book of Psalms (ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν) that the Lord said to my Lord (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου) to sit at my right hand (Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Here is an explicit reference to the Book of the Psalms with the assumption that King David (1000 BCE) had written this psalm. Thus, citing Psalm 110 was like citing David himself. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:43-44, and Mark, chapter 12:36. Mark used Psalm 110:1 as the basis of this question about David and the Messiah Christ. Mark indicated that Jesus said that David himself (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν), inspired by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ), spoke about the “Lord (Κύριος).” In Psalm 110:1, David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them what did David mean when, inspired by the Spirit, he called the future Messiah, a son of David, “Lord” (Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω). Jesus then cited Psalm 110:1, where David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Thus, there was an attempt to give Davidic authority to this biblical saying. Do you like the psalms?
Said to them.
‘How can they say
That the Christ,
Is David’s son?’”
Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Πῶς λέγουσιν τὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι Δαυεὶδ υἱόν;
Luke indicated that Jesus asked them (Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς) how they could say (Πῶς λέγουσιν) that the Christ Messiah would be the son of David (τὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι Δαυεὶδ υἱόν)? There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:41-42, and Mark, chapter 12:35, but Jesus was sparing with the Pharisees and the Scribes, not a vague “they,” as here in Luke. However, Mark was closer to Luke. Mark said while Jesus was teaching in the Temple (διδάσκων ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), he questioned them saying (Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν) how can the Scribes say (Πῶς λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς) that the Messiah Christ is the son of David (ὅτι ὁ Χριστὸς υἱὸς Δαυείδ ἐστιν)? This was a complex question that Jesus posed to them. He seemed to imply that the Christ Messiah was the son of David. Matthew indicated that the Pharisees had gathered together (Συνηγμένων δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων) around Jesus. Thus, he asked them a simple question (ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς). Here Jesus posed the question (λέγων) whose son would the Messiah Christ be (Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ περὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ; τίνος υἱός ἐστιν)? The Pharisees responded (λέγουσιν) that the Messiah Christ would be the son of David (αὐτῷ Τοῦ Δαυείδ). This was the traditional Jewish response based on Psalm 110:1, that the Messiah would be the son or descendant of David. How was Jesus the son of David?
“Then he shouted.
Son of David!
Have mercy on me!’”
καὶ ἐβόησεν λέγων Ἰησοῦ υἱὲ Δαυείδ, ἐλέησόν με.
Luke indicated that this blind beggar shouted (καὶ ἐβόησεν λέγων). “Jesus (Ἰησοῦ)! Son of David (υἱὲ Δαυείδ)! Have mercy on me (ἐλέησόν με)!” There are similarities with Mark, chapter 10:47, and Matthew, chapter 20:30. Mark said that Bartimaeus began to shout out (ἤρξατο κράζειν). He said (καὶ λέγειν) that he wanted Jesus, the Son of David (Υἱὲ Δαυεὶδ Ἰησοῦ), to have mercy on him (ἐλέησον με). Matthew said that when the two blind beggars heard that Jesus was passing by (ἀκούσαντες ὅτι Ἰησοῦς παράγει), they cried out to him (ἔκραξαν λέγοντες) to have mercy on them (ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς). They called Jesus the messianic Lord (Κύριε), the Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ). All three synoptic gospels pointed out that the blind beggars were able to see the truth that Jesus was the Son of David. They wanted mercy. Do you want God to be merciful to you?
“But some of them said.
‘He casts out demons
The ruler of demons.’”
τινὲς δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶπαν Ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια
Luke indicated that some anonymous people in the crowd said (τινὲς δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶπαν) that Jesus was casting out demons (ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια) by Beelzebul (Ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ), the ruler or the prince of the demons (τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων). Matthew, chapter 12:24, said that it was the Pharisees, not someone in the crowd, who heard that the people were calling Jesus the “Son of David,” a messianic name. They then accused Jesus of being in cahoots with Beelzebul, the leader of the demons. In other words, Jesus was casting out demons because he was working with the devil, the prince of the demons, Beelzebul. Mark, chapter 3:22, said that the Scribes came down from Jerusalem, and not the Pharisees, as in Matthew, or someone in the crowd as in Luke, that accused Jesus of working with Beelzebul. Thus, as the leader or ruler of the demons, he was casting out other demons. The implication was that Jesus was working with the devil, the very leader of the demons, Beelzebul, an ancient Canaanite god known as the “Lord of the flies.” However, Beelzebul had become another name for the devil or a major demon in early Christianity and late Judaism. What do you think the role of the devil is in your life?
“Jesus was casting out
Who was mute.
When the demon
Had left him.
The mute person
Καὶ ἦν ἐκβάλλων δαιμόνιον, καὶ αὐτὸ ἦν κωφόν· ἐγένετο δὲ τοῦ δαιμονίου ἐξελθόντος ἐλάλησεν ὁ κωφός. καὶ ἐθαύμασαν οἱ ὄχλοι·
Luke said that Jesus was casting out a demon (Καὶ ἦν ἐκβάλλων δαιμόνιον) who was in a mute person (καὶ αὐτὸ ἦν κωφόν). When the demon had left (ἐγένετο δὲ τοῦ δαιμονίου ἐξελθόντος), the mute person spoke (ἐλάλησεν ὁ κωφός). The crowds were amazed (καὶ ἐθαύμασαν οἱ ὄχλοι). There was something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 9:32-33, and Matthew, chapter 12:22-23. In chapter 9, Matthew said that Jesus was going on his way, when someone brought a mute or non-speaking demoniac person to him. Jesus then cast out the demon from this man, so that this mute person began to speak. The crowds marveled in awe at this happening. They said that nothing like this had ever happened in Israel. However, in chapter 8:28-33, Matthew had Jesus cast out demons from the demoniacs and send them into the pigs, but that was on the east side of the Jordan River. In chapter 12 of Matthew, a man, possessed by the devil was both mute and blind. Jesus then healed him, but there was no mention of casting out a demon from this man, although that could be assumed. Then this mute and blind person began to speak and see, with the emphasis on healing, not on exorcising. This crowd was also amazed or astonished about what they saw. They wondered whether Jesus was the Son of David. The historical son of David was Solomon, who also had healing powers. “Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ)” was also a royal or messianic name. However, here in Luke, exorcising the demon was important, rather than healing or any messianic expectation. Have you ever seen a mute person speak?
“Jesus was the son,
As was thought,
The son of Heli.”
ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσὴφ, τοῦ Ἡλεὶ
Luke said that Jesus was the son (ὢν υἱός), as was thought or supposed (ὡς ἐνομίζετο), of Joseph (Ἰωσὴφ,), the son of Heli (τοῦ Ἡλεὶ). Right off the bat, there is a problem with the differences between the genealogies of Matthew and Luke. The end of the genealogy of Matthew, chapter 1:16, is Joseph (Ἰωσὴφ) with his father Jacob (Ἰακὼβ). Perhaps the names of Jacob and Joseph were an attempt to connect Jesus with the great Joseph, the son of Jacob, who brought the sons of Jacob to Egypt. However, compared to the text here in Luke, there is a difference with the father of Joseph, the grandfather of Jesus. Luke called him “the son of Heli,” not “the son of Jacob.” Luke said that Joseph was the so-called father of Jesus. Thus, it might seem simple enough to compare this genealogy of Jesus with the one in Matthew, chapter 1:1-1:17. Both the gospels of Matthew and Luke listed the family tree of Jesus. These genealogies were theological statements with different parent genealogies and different audiences. Matthew, went from Abraham to Jesus, so that Jesus was the fulfillment of the Jewish messianic expectations. The theme of David was important, since Joseph was called the son of David. Matthew explained that there were 3 sections of 14 generations. One section went from the call of Abraham to the accession of David as king. The second grouping went from David to the Babylonian exile. The final section went from the Exile to the coming of the Messiah. The Gospel of Luke genealogy, on the hand, goes from Jesus to Adam to God. Luke’s view was more universal. Jesus could trace his roots back to God. Luke, who had the best Greek, was apparently writing for the gentiles of the Pauline Churches. The Son of God was a more meaningful term. Luke spoke of the Son of Adam, the second Adam, a theme that Paul also used. Jesus had both divine and human origins. This was not difficult for Greeks, since their gods were always having relations with humans in their mythical stories. Thus, there are two different genealogies for Joseph, with only one common person, David. This left Jesus with 2 paternal grandfathers, Jacob and Heli. Matthew listed 52 people, but Luke has 77 ancestors because he went further back in time. It is what it is.
Who went ahead,
And those who followed,
Blessed is the one
In the name
Of the Lord!
The coming kingdom
Of our ancestor
In the highest heaven!’”
καὶ οἱ προάγοντες καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες ἔκραζον Ὡσαννά· Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου·
Εὐλογημένη ἡ ἐρχομένη βασιλεία τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυείδ· Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις.
Both Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Luke, chapter 19:38, are similar but with slight differences. Mark said that the crowds or the people were in front of (οἱ προάγοντες) and behind Jesus (καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες). They were all shouting out (ἔκραζον) “Hosanna” (Ὡσαννὰ)!” Jesus was the blessed one who came in the name of the Lord (Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου). Mark was the only one with the saying about the coming kingdom. He said that they were shouting blessed is the coming kingdom (Εὐλογημένη ἡ ἐρχομένη βασιλεία) of our ancestor or father David (οῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυείδ). He did not actually call Jesus the son of David, as Matthew did. These hosannas should reach to the highest heaven (Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις). Hosanna was a Hebrew term of praise asking God to save them. This saying came from the Hallel chants that was used in the Passover celebration, based on Psalm 118:26. Later it became part of the Roman Catholic “Sanctus” chant in the Eucharistic celebration.
Spread their garments
On the road.
That they had cut
In the fields.”
καὶ πολλοὶ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν, ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας, κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν.
Both Matthew, chapter 21:8, and Luke, chapter 19:36, are similar but with slight differences. Mark said that instead of crowds, it was many people (καὶ πολλοὶ) that spread out their outer garments, cloaks, or coats on the road (τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν). Meanwhile, others were cutting down leafy branches from the surrounding fields (ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας, κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν), also spreading out these branches on the road. This event has become the great Palm Sunday celebration, the triumphant entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem. Actually, only John, chapter 12:13, called these palm branches. This idea of laying garments on the road can be found in 2 Kings, chapter 9:13, to protect the feet of the king. Clearly, this was an attempt to connect Jesus with the Davidic kingship. Was Jesus to be the new king of Israel as a son of David?