The slave returned.
He reported this
To his master.
Then the owner
Of the house
To his slave.
‘Go out at once
Into the streets
And into the lanes
Of the town!
And the lame!’”
καὶ παραγενόμενος ὁ δοῦλος ἀπήγγειλεν τῷ κυρίῳ αὐτοῦ ταῦτα. τότε ὀργισθεὶς ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης εἶπεν τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ Ἔξελθε ταχέως εἰς τὰς πλατείας καὶ ῥύμας τῆς πόλεως, καὶ τοὺς πτωχοὺς καὶ ἀναπήρους καὶ τυφλοὺς καὶ χωλοὺς εἰσάγαγε ὧδε.
Luke continued this parable. Jesus said that this slave returned (καὶ παραγενόμενος ὁ δοῦλος). Then he reported (ἀπήγγειλεν) to his master, the lord (τῷ κυρίῳ), all these things (ταῦτα). The owner of the house (ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης) then became very angry (τότε ὀργισθεὶς). He told his slave (εἶπεν τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ) to go out at once (Ἔξελθε ταχέως) into the streets (εἰς τὰς πλατείας) and the lanes of the town (καὶ ῥύμας τῆς πόλεως,). He was to bring in the poor (καὶ τοὺς πτωχοὺς), the crippled (καὶ ἀναπήρους), the blind (καὶ τυφλοὺς), and the lame (καὶ χωλοὺς) in there (ὧδε). Once again, there are some differences with Matthew, chapter 22:8-9, who was less descriptive of those who were invited this time. Jesus said that this king told his slaves (τότε λέγει τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ) that the wedding feast was ready (Ὁ μὲν γάμος ἕτοιμός ἐστιν). Those originally invited were not worthy or deserving of his invitation (οἱ δὲ κεκλημένοι οὐκ ἦσαν ἄξιοι). Therefore, they were to go into the main streets or the meeting places on the roads (πορεύεσθε οὖν ἐπὶ τὰς διεξόδους τῶν ὁδῶν). Then they should invite everyone or as many as they could find to this wedding banquet (καὶ ὅσους ἐὰν εὕρητε καλέσατε εἰς τοὺς γάμους). This king was intent on having this wedding dinner. However, Luke extended the new invitations to the vulnerable in our society, the poor, the crippled, the blind, and the lame, a slightly different perspective. Who would you invite to a dinner feast?
Myths are not lies, but stories. Story telling is an important human activity and essential to the life of any society. Myths awaken and maintain an experience of awe in the face of the ultimate religious mystery. Myths explain where the world came from and where it is going. Myths promote virtues and a certain social ethical order. Myths give individuals a role and identity much like our modern psychology. Joseph Campbell (1904-1987) and Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) have shown that myth is not a negative, but a positive part of life. If we did not have religious myths, people would create their own secular myths, like in sports, such as baseball and football.
The New Testament references the Hebrew Bible that came to be known as the Old Testament. The New Testament books were not referred to until the second century of the common era. Consensus on its contents did not occur until the late fourth century. There is nothing wrong with different points of view or inconsistencies. The first two chapters of Genesis are not contradictory. The synoptic gospels give different versions of the Baptism of Jesus. Most of us just say “so what?” We understand different points of view. The Bible had different authors over a considerable amount of time. The Old Testament took hundreds of years to complete. The New Testament took thirty to sixty years to finish. Very few could write, so that oral tradition dominated in that society. The texts themselves were rewritten, so that we say that the texts we have, with all its corrections, is the one that God wants us to have.
“The letter said.
‘Thus says Yahweh of hosts!
The God of Israel!
To all the exiles
Whom I have sent
Live in them!
Eat what they produce!
Take wives for your sons!
Give your daughters
Thus they may bear sons.
Thus they may bear daughters.
Do not decrease!
But seek the welfare
Of the city
Where I have sent you
Pray to Yahweh
On its behalf.
In its welfare
You will find your welfare.’”
Interesting enough, this letter is very favorable to the Babylonians. After all, it was going to the king of Babylon. Once again it is the classical Jeremiah oracle with Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, as the source of this letter. They were to build houses, live in them, plant gardens, and eat from their produce. They were to have wives and children. They were to take wives for their sons and give their daughters in marriage, so that they could become grandparents. They should multiply there, not decrease. In fact, they were to get involved in the city there by praying to Yahweh for its welfare. After all, if the city did well, so would they. This seems like a clear attempt to assimilate into the Babylonian culture and society.
“A potter kneads the soft earth.
He laboriously molds each vessel for our service.
He fashions out of the same clay
Both the vessels that serve clean uses
As well as those for contrary uses.
He makes all alike.
But which shall be the use of each of them?
The worker in clay decides.
With misspent toil,
These workers form a futile god
From the same clay.
These mortals were made of earth a short time before.
After a little while,
They go to the earth
From which all mortals are taken.
When the time comes,
They return the souls that were borrowed.”
The potter makes items from clay. Thus he performs a service to society by making things that for everyday usage. Some items are for good use and others are not. He must decide whether to spend his time on good uses or making futile gods of clay (κακόμοχθος θεὸν). He must have forgotten that he too was made of clay a short time ago. He, too, will return to the earth (γῆς) when his soul (τῆς ψυχῆς) separates from his mortal body. This concept of body and soul shows the influence of Greek philosophy since the body merely borrowed the soul.
“Blessed is the barren woman
Who is undefiled.
She has not entered into a sinful union.
She will have fruit
When God examines souls.
Blessed also is the eunuch
Whose hands have done no lawless deed.
He has not devised wicked things against the Lord.
Special favor will be shown him
For his faithfulness.
There will be a place of great delight
In the temple of the Lord.
The fruit of good labors is renowned.
The root of understanding does not fail.”
This author then praises or calls the barren woman and the eunuch blessed or blissful (μακαρία). Both of these groups of people were considered outcasts of society because of their sterility. These barren women are those who were not defiled. They had not entered into a sinful union. They will bear fruit when their souls would be examined (ἐπισκοπῇ ψυχῶν). The eunuchs should have not done any lawless actions. They will not have devised anything wicked against the Lord (κατὰ τοῦ Κυρίου πονηρά). They will receive special favors because they were faithful. They will have a special place in the Temple of the Lord (ἐν ναῷ Κυρίου θυμηρέστερος). This is a reference to some kind of eternal reward. The fruits of a good life and understanding will not fail.
“A prostitute is a deep pit.
An adulteress is a narrow well.
She lies in wait like a robber.
She increases the number of the faithless.”
Once again there is a warning about prostitutes and adulteress women who are trying to lure young men. They are like a deep pit or a narrow well. They will rob you since they lay in wait for you. These evil women are the cause of the increase in the number of the faithless. It is never the fault of the men, only the women. There are no admonitions to young women about males attempting to rape them. Perhaps they were more protected in this society.