Luke uniquely said that Peter (ὁ δὲ Πέτρος) and his 2 companions (καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ) were weighed down with sleep (ἦσαν βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ). However, since they had stayed fully awake (διαγρηγορήσαντες), they saw the glory of Jesus (δὲ εἶδαν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ) and the 2 men (καὶ τοὺς δύο ἄνδρας) who stood with him (τοὺς συνεστῶτας αὐτῷ). This is another unique statement by Luke about Peter during the transfiguration, since the other synoptics did not mention this. Peter with his 2 companions were almost asleep, like they did later in the Garden of Gethsemane. However, Peter, James, and John stayed awake long enough to catch a glimpse of the glory of the transfigured Jesus, Moses, and Elijah, as they watched them talk together. There was no indication what language was being spoken, but the assumption might be that it was Hebrew or Aramaic. Have you ever fallen asleep so that you missed an important event?
This unique parable of Mark is not found in any of the other synoptic gospels. Jesus said (Καὶ ἔλεγεν) that the kingdom of God (Οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ) was like as if someone or a man would scatter, place, or drop some seeds on the ground (ὡς ἄνθρωπος βάλῃ τὸν σπόρον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς). He would then go to sleep (καὶ καθεύδῃ) and wake up (καὶ ἐγείρηται) every night and day (νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν). Meanwhile, the seeds would sprout (καὶ ὁ σπόρος βλαστᾷ) and grow (καὶ μηκύνηται). However, he did not know how this happened (ὡς οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτός). This is a little like the sower and the seeds in the various difficult places. However, this is a simpler story. He was just wondering how things grew in the kingdom of God.
This angel of the Lord explained to Joseph that King Herod was dead. He told (λέγων) Joseph to get up (Ἐγερθεὶς) from his sleep. He was to take the child and his mother (παράλαβε τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ), just as he had done in Bethlehem. This time, he was to go into the land of Israel (πορεύου εἰς γῆν Ἰσραήλ) because the people seeking the child’s life were dead (τεθνήκασιν γὰρ οἱ ζητοῦντες τὴν ψυχὴν τοῦ παιδίου). Thus, Joseph, as usual, followed the commands of the angel of the Lord. He got up (ὁ δὲ ἐγερθεὶς) and took the child with his mother (παρέλαβεν τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ) and went into the land of Israel (εἰσῆλθεν εἰς γῆν Ἰσραήλ). Notice there is no mention of the name of Mary and Jesus, just the general description of them as child and mother.
Joseph woke up (ὁ δὲ ἐγερθεὶς) from his sleep after the dream of the angel of the Lord. Then at night (νυκτὸς), he took the child with his mother (παρέλαβεν τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ). They went or withdrew into Egypt (ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον), just as he had been told to do. Joseph clearly followed the instructions that he got in his dream. He took his whole family, without hesitation, under the cover of darkness at night, into an unknown place in Egypt. They stayed someplace in Egypt (ἦν ἐκεῖ ἕως), until Herod would die (τῆς τελευτῆς Ἡρῴδου). There is no indication of where they went in Egypt.
They took a stone and put it at the mouth of the den. The king sealed the opening to the den with his own signet, as well as that of his lords. Nothing would be changed concerning Daniel. Then the king went to his palace that night and fasted. He did not sleep. He was still a little uneasy about this whole Daniel affair.
Yahweh was going to make a new covenant of peace with the Israelites. They would be secure wherever they went. Yahweh was going to banish all the wild animals from the land of Israel. Then they could live and even sleep in the wild woods without any concern. This time of peace was upon them.
Here there is a description of the temple prostitutes and their behavior. These women, with cords around them, would sit in the passageways at the temple, burning bran for incense. Then a passer-by would invite them or take them off to sleep with them. Strangely enough, when the woman would return, she would make fun of the other women who were not chosen to have sex with these passer-bys, because they were not as attractive as she was. These other women had no one to break their cords. Thus these false idols bring about all kinds of strange behaviors. That is why people might doubt that these were true gods. How could you call them gods?
In the midst of all these oracles of Yahweh, Jeremiah found time to get some sleep. When he woke up, he looked around. His sleep had been very pleasant. He had been reassured that Israel and Judah would be restored.
Second Isaiah has King Hezekiah suffering a lot. He has lost his dwelling so that all he has is a tent, like a shepherd. His life has been rolled up so that he is like a weaver who cannot get to his loom. He suffers both day and night as he cries all night. His bones are broken as if from a lion’s attack. He clamors like a swallow or a crane and moans like a dove. He is weary from looking up. He wanted Yahweh to be his security because he was oppressed. What can he say? Yahweh has told him about what he has done to him. He cannot sleep because of his bitter soul. This king is depressed.
This haughty king now descends after his death into the shadowy underworld of Sheol. Everyone there wanted to meet this king. All the former leaders and kings of the world were there to greet this newly deceased Babylonian king. They got up from their thrones and greeted him. Then they reminded him that he had become like them, weak. All his self important pomps were gone in Sheol. There was no harp playing in Sheol. In fact, he would sleep on a bed of maggots with worms as his covering, not a pretty picture.