Your enemies (Lk 20:43-20:43)

“I will make

Your enemies

A footstool

For your feet.”

 

ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus continued with Psalm 110 that David would make the enemies of the Messiah (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου) as a footstool (ὑποπόδιον) for his feet (τῶν ποδῶν σου).  There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:36, and Matthew, chapter 22:44.  Mark indicated that David would sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου).  Matthew quoted the exact same verse of Psalm, 110:1, that he should sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου).  Would you like to see all your enemies at your feet?

The Psalms (Lk 20:42-20:42)

“David himself

Says

In the Book of Psalms.

‘The Lord said

To my Lord.

Sit at my right hand!’”

 

αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου

 

Luke had Jesus continue by saying that David himself said that (αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει) in the Book of Psalms (ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν) that the Lord said to my Lord (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου) to sit at my right hand (Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου).  Here is an explicit reference to the Book of the Psalms with the assumption that King David (1000 BCE) had written this psalm.  Thus, citing Psalm 110 was like citing David himself.  There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:43-44, and Mark, chapter 12:36.  Mark used Psalm 110:1 as the basis of this question about David and the Messiah Christ.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that David himself (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν), inspired by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ), spoke about the “Lord (Κύριος).”  In Psalm 110:1, David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου).  Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them what did David mean when, inspired by the Spirit, he called the future Messiah, a son of David, “Lord” (Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω).  Jesus then cited Psalm 110:1, where David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου).  Thus, there was an attempt to give Davidic authority to this biblical saying.  Do you like the psalms?

Judah and Perez (Lk 3:33-3:33)

“The son of Amminadab,

The son of Admin,

The son of Arni,

The son of Hezron,

The son of Perez,

The son of Judah.”

 

τοῦ Ἀμιναδὰβ τοῦ Ἀδμεὶν τοῦ Ἀρνεὶ τοῦ Ἐσρὼμ τοῦ Φαρὲς τοῦ Ἰούδα

 

The two genealogies of Matthew and Luke are almost the same from Judah to Amminadab.  Luke listed them as Nahshon, the son of Amminadab (τοῦ Ἀμιναδὰβ), the son of Admin (τοῦ Ἀδμεὶν), the son of Arni (τοῦ Ἀρνεὶ), the son of Hezron (τοῦ Ἐσρὼμ), the son of Perez (τοῦ Φαρὲς), the son of Judah (τοῦ Ἰούδα).  Clearly, Judah had become the dominant tribe by the time of Jesus.  The story of the children for Judah is a very interesting tale as portrayed in Genesis, chapter 38.  Judah married a Canaanite woman named Bathshuah in Adullam.  They had three sons, Er, Onan, and Shelah.  Then the story got more complicated.  Judah found a lady named Tamar to be a wife for his first-born wicked son Er, whom Yahweh put to death.  Then Judah sent Onan, his second son, to produce children for his brother from Tamar, Er’s wife.  However, Onan spilled his semen on the ground, so that he would not have any children.  Thus, Yahweh put him to death also.  Judah then told Tamar to live as a widow in her father’s house, until his youngest son Shelah was older and able to marry her.  Tamar, in the meantime, saw that Shelah had grown up, but was not being offered in marriage to her.  She decided to throw off her widow garments, put a veil on, and sit on the road from Adullam to Timnah.  Now Judah, whose wife Bathshuah had died, was on this same road and thought that she was a prostitute, because her face was covered.  He gave her his signature ring and the cord as a pledge that he would pay her later for her sexual favors.  They had sex and she conceived by him.  Three months later, Judah found out that his daughter-in-law Tamar was pregnant as a result of prostitution.  He wanted her immediately burned, but she told Judah that the owner of a ring and cord made her pregnant.  Judah admitted that she was right.  Tamar then had twins from this pregnancy, Perez and Zerah, who disputed about who was the first out of the womb.  Interesting enough, the line of Judah would have died out without this prostitute episode.  Thus, the sacred lineage of Judah goes through a father-in-law having paid sex with his daughter-in-law, Tamar, who was a Canaanite.  According to Genesis, chapter 46:12, Perez, the son of Judah, had 2 sons, Hezron and Hamul. who went with Jacob to Egypt.  From 1 Chronicles, chapter 2:9-17, we learn about the linage of Hezron.  He had 3 sons, Jerahmeel, Aram, and Chelubai.  This Aram, Arni, or Ram was the father of Aminadab or Amminadab.  Luke added an Admin who is not found elsewhere or maybe another name for Ram.  Amminadab had a daughter, Elisheba, who married Aaron, the brother of Moses, in Exodus, chapter 6:23.  Amminadab was the father of Nahshon, the brother-in-law of Aaron and Moses.

Peace (Lk 1:79-1:79)

“God will give light

To those who

Sit in darkness.

He will give light

To those who

Sit in the shadow

Of death.

He will

Guide our feet

Into the way

Of peace.”

 

ἐπιφᾶναι τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις, τοῦ κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης.

 

Luke concluded Zechariah’s canticle with a call to peace for all Israelites.  Zechariah said that God would give light or shine upon those who sat in darkness (ἐπιφᾶναι τοῖς ἐν σκότει).  He would also give light to those who sat in the shadow of death (καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις).  He would guide their feet (τοῦ κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν) into the way of peace (εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης).  Once again, returning to prophetic expectations, Zechariah said that things would be good for those living in darkness or the shadow of death.  Hope or the messiah would come so that they would have the lasting peace that they so desired.

 

Gethsemane (Mk 14:32-14:32)

“They went to a place

Named Gethsemane.

Jesus said

To his disciples.

‘Sit here!

While I pray.’”

 

Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς χωρίον οὗ τὸ ὄνομα Γεθσημανεί, καὶ λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ Καθίσατε ὧδε ἕως προσεύξωμαι.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:36.  In Luke, chapter 22:40, there is no mention of Gethsemane only the Mount of Olives, while in John, chapter 18:1, it is a garden in the Kidron Valley.  Mark said that they went out (Καὶ ἔρχονται) to a place with the name of Gethsemane (εἰς χωρίον οὗ τὸ ὄνομα Γεθσημανεί).  This Aramaic name Gethsemane means an oil press.  Thus, this might have been the place where olive oil came from as this urban garden was at the foothills of the Mount of Olives, where they had just been.  Jesus then told his disciples (καὶ λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ) to sit there (Καθίσατε), while he went to pray (ὧδε ἕως προσεύξωμαι).  Thus, they have gone from the room where the Last Supper Passover meal took place to the Mount of Olives, and now to the garden in Gethsemane at the base of this hill filled with olives.

David and the psalms (Mk 12:36-12:36)

“David himself,

Inspired

By the Holy Spirit,

Declared.

‘The Lord said

To my Lord.

‘Sit

At my right hand!

Until I put

Your enemies

Under your feet.’”

 

αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου.

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:43-44, and Luke, chapter 20:42-43, almost word for word.  Mark used Psalm 110:1 as the basis of this question about David and the Messiah Christ.  Mark indicated that that Jesus said that David himself (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν), inspired by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ), spoke about the “Lord (Κύριος).”  In Psalm 110:1, David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου).  He should sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου).  The assumption was that David had written the psalms, so that citing Psalm 110 was citing David himself.

Jesus does not grant seating arrangements (Mk 10:40-10:40)

“But to sit

At my right hand

Or at my left hand

Is not mine

To grant.

But it is for those

For whom

It has been prepared.”

 

τὸ δὲ καθίσαι ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἢ ἐξ εὐωνύμων οὐκ ἔστιν ἐμὸν δοῦναι, ἀλλ’ οἷς ἡτοίμασται.

 

There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 20:23, but slightly different.  Mark indicated that Jesus said to the two sons of Zebedee, James and John, that the sitting at the right hand (τὸ δὲ καθίσαι ἐκ δεξιῶν μου) and the left hand of Jesus (ἢ ἐξ εὐωνύμων) was not within his power.  He said that he had no control over that (οὐκ ἔστιν ἐμὸν δοῦναι).  All that was prepared by someone else (ἀλλ’ οἷς ἡτοίμασται ὑπὸ).  Matthew had said the heavenly Father prepared it, but that is not mentioned here in Mark.  Jesus said that he could not grant this request because he was not the decision maker about heavenly seating arrangements.