Will pass away,
But my words
Will not pass away!”
ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ παρελεύσονται, οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου οὐ μὴ παρελεύσονται.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that heaven (ὁ οὐρανὸς) and earth (καὶ ἡ γῆ) would pass away (παρελεύσονται), but his words (οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου) would not pass away (οὐ μὴ παρελεύσονται). This is word for word in Matthew, chapter 24:35, and in Mark, chapter 13:31. Mark indicated that Jesus said that heaven and earth would pass away (ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ παρελεύσονται), but his words would not pass away (οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου οὐ μὴ παρελεύσονται). Matthew indicated that Jesus said that heaven and earth would pass away (ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ παρελεύσεται), but his words would not pass away (οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου οὐ μὴ παρέλθωσιν). This was a simple statement about the enduring quality of the words of Jesus. How do you value the words of Jesus?
“Go your way!
I am sending you out
Into the midst
ὑπάγετε· ἰδοὺ ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς ἄρνας ἐν μέσῳ λύκων.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that they were to go on their way (ὑπάγετε). He was going to send them out (ἰδοὺ ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς) as lambs (ὡς ἄρνας) in the middle of wolves (ἐν μέσῳ λύκων). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 10:16, perhaps indicating a Q source. This was part of the remarks that Jesus gave as the admonitions to his 12 apostles. Matthew indicated that Jesus was going to send them out like sheep in the middle of wolves. Luke did not mention as Matthew had that Jesus told them that they had to be as wise, intelligent, shrewd, or sensible as serpents. At the same time, they had to be as innocent, simple, unsophisticated, sincere, or blameless, as doves. This was a tall order. Here there was a simple statement without any explanation. Are you more like a lamb or a wolf?
Got into a boat
With his disciples.
He said to them.
‘Let us go across
To the other side
Of the lake.’
They set out.”
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς πλοῖον καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς λίμνης· καὶ ἀνήχθησαν.
Luke said that one day (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν), Jesus got into a boat (καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς πλοῖον) with his disciples (καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ). He said to them (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) that he wanted to go across to the other side of the lake (Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς λίμνης). Thus, they set out (καὶ ἀνήχθησαν). Something similar to this short episode of Jesus telling his disciples to travel across the sea can also be found in Mark, chapter 4:35-36. Mark said that at the end of the day, when evening came, Jesus told his disciples that he wanted them to cross over to the other side of the Sea of Galilee from Capernaum. However, Mark added that Jesus dismissed the crowds. Then he and his disciples got into a couple of boats. Thus, there was a small group of boats crossing the Sea of Galilee. Matthew, chapter 8:23, had the simple statement that Jesus got into the boat with his disciples. Have you ever gone across a sea or a lake on a boat?
“When they had brought
They left everything.
They followed Jesus.”
καὶ καταγαγόντες τὰ πλοῖα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν, ἀφέντες πάντα ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ.
Luke has a simple statement compared to Mark and Matthew. He said that when these fishermen had brought their boats to land (καὶ καταγαγόντες τὰ πλοῖα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν), they left everything (ἀφέντες πάντα). They followed Jesus (ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ). This is like Mark, chapter 1:19-20, or Matthew, chapter 4:19-20. There Jesus said to them to come and follow after him, since he was going to make them fishers of human people. They immediately left their nets and followed or accompanied Jesus, like an Israelite prophetic call, since Jesus had spoken directly to these two men. He issued an invitation that seemed like a command at the same time. They followed after Jesus, no matter what. Like the Hebrew prophets, their response was immediate, without any hesitation. They left their fishing nets, as both Simon Peter and Andrew, his brother, became disciples of Jesus. The other two brothers, James and John left both their boat and also their father Zebedee. However, in Luke, there was no mention of Andrew, the brother of Simon, or any direct formal call to these fishermen. The results were the same. There were either 3 or 4 new full disciples of Jesus.
“Jesus answered him.
‘It is written.
Serve only him!’”
καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Γέγραπται Προσκυνήσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις.
Just like in Matthew, chapter 4:10, the wording is nearly the same, indicating perhaps a common Q source. Once again, Jesus had a very direct response to the devil (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ). He referred to another scriptural writing (Γέγραπται) from Deuteronomy, chapter 6:13. This was again a simple statement that you should only worship the Lord your God (Προσκυνήσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου). You should serve him alone (καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις). In Deuteronomy, chapter 6:13, Yahweh had said they should only fear and serve Yahweh and swear by his name only. The only main difference with Matthew, is that Jesus told the devil to go away. That was not here in Luke.
“Then Judas Iscariot,
Who was one of the twelve,
Went to the chief priests
In order to betray Jesus
Καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰσκαριὼθ, ὁ εἷς τῶν δώδεκα, ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδοῖ αὐτοῖς.
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:14, and somewhat similar in Luke, chapter 22:3-4, and in John, chapter 13:2, where Satan played a role. Here in Mark, there is just the simple statement that Judas Iscariot (Καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰσκαριὼθ), one of the beloved 12 leaders or apostles (ὁ εἷς τῶν δώδεκα) went to the chief priests (ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς). He wanted to betray or turn over Jesus to these high priests (ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδοῖ αὐτοῖς). Apparently, according to John, chapter 12:6, Judas had been in charge of their common money, but he was stealing from this fund. Thus, there may have been financial reasons or greed pushing Judas to betray Jesus. John seems to be much more vehemently opposed to Judas.
“On the following day,
When they came
Jesus was hungry.”
Καὶ τῇ ἐπαύριον ἐξελθόντων αὐτῶν ἀπὸ Βηθανίας ἐπείνασεν.
This story about Jesus being hungry in the morning can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:18. On the following day, the next day (Καὶ τῇ ἐπαύριον), when Jesus and his disciples came from Bethany (ἐξελθόντων αὐτῶν ἀπὸ Βηθανίας), he was hungry (ἐπείνασεν). This simple statement starts an intriguing story, but also shows an interesting human trait of Jesus. Like many other humans, he was hungry in the morning.
“On that day,
When evening had come,
He said to them.
‘Let us go across
To the other side.’”
Καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὀψίας γενομένης Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν.
This short episode of Jesus telling his disciples to travel across the sea can also be found in Luke, chapter 8:22. This simple statement of Mark said that at the end of the day (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ), when evening came (ὀψίας γενομένης), Jesus told his disciples (Καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) that he wanted them to cross over to the other side (Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν) of the Sea of Galilee from Capernaum.
“John the Baptizer
In the wilderness.
He was proclaiming
For the forgiveness of sins.”
ἐγένετο Ἰωάνης ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν
There is something similar, but not quite the same in all 4 gospel stories. Matthew, chapter 3:1-2, called John the Baptist (βαπτιστὴς) not the Baptizer (ὁ βαπτίζων), but John was in the wilderness, like here, calling for repentance. In Matthew, John also warned the people that the kingdom of heaven was near. Luke, chapter 3:2:3, is actually closer to Mark, since he used the exact same words about John in the wilderness, proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. John, chapter l:19-29, had a long dialogue with John and the priests and Levites about what he was doing. Mark has this simple statement that John the Baptizer, or the one baptizing, appeared (ἐγένετο Ἰωάνης ὁ βαπτίζων) in the wilderness or desert (ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ). How and what he did before or after did not matter. He was there proclaiming or preaching a baptism of repentance, a life change, or metanoia (κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας) to have sins or faults forgiven or wiped away (ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν). John tied this repentant change of life style baptism with the forgiving of sins or wiping away of past faults, since he was calling for repentance. John and Jesus are linked in some ways like Aaron and Moses or the later Peter and Paul. One is superior to the other but the other plays an indispensable role.
“They bound Jesus.
They led him away.
They delivered him
καὶ δήσαντες αὐτὸν ἀπήγαγον καὶ παρέδωκαν Πειλάτῳ τῷ ἡγεμόνι.
This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:1, except there was no mention that Pilate was the governor, but just assumes that. In Luke, chapter 23:1, there is just the simple statement that they brought Jesus to Pilate. In John, chapter 18:28-32, there was a long discussion of Pilate with the Jewish leaders. Who is this Pontius Pilate? He was the rather cruel Roman ruler, prefect, or governor of Judea from 26-36 CE, the exact time frame of Jesus. These chief priests and elders of the people tied up Jesus (καὶ δήσαντες αὐτὸν). They led him away and delivered him to Pilate (ἀπήγαγον καὶ παρέδωκαν Πειλάτῳ), the Roman governor (τῷ ἡγεμόνι) of Judea who had jurisdiction over death penalties in the Judean territory, since Judea was within the Roman Empire. Interesting enough, a whole literature and artistic presentation of Pontius Pilate developed in 20th century with movie and TV portrayals of him. He was certainly a central figure in this Passion of Jesus presentation.