There were different literary forms that came under the various cultural human influences. Literary criticism means the various applications that people have used to investigate any kind of literature. The study of the use of language and style to obtain meaning has helped to reestablish the unity, the beauty, the integrity, the quality, and the meaning and significance of biblical literature. Many subcategories of literary criticism also exist. An examination of the use of language and literary style shows how these human authors established their meanings. The formal scientific study of human language involves the application of some aspects of modern linguistics. Structuralism is an attempt to discover underlying deep patterns of universal meaning and significance.
The study of how the manuscript editions of the texts have changed is called redaction criticism. This is the examination of these literary biblical document to discover how the biblical authors have formed and linked the materials together. How did they edit these texts to establish their meaning and significance?
The German theologian Hermann Gunkel (1862-1932) first developed Formgechichte in an attempt to establish fixed literary patterns. These patterns then could go behind the present text to help establish the meaning and significance of the literary pattern in its original context. However, the meaning of form criticism has become fluid. The study of the biblical texts using form criticism has revealed a marvelous multiplicity of literary styles, forms, and methods used in the Bible.
Until the 18th century, there never was any question about the historical validity of the Bible. Both Protestants and Catholics took it for granted that whatever the Bible said happened, actually happened. The only dispute was as to the meaning and significance of the stories. A new historical skepticism from the French Enlightenment and the German Rationalism began to question whether the events as described in the Bible ever took place. First there were questions about events in the Old Testament, about Adam and Eve, Abraham, and Moses. Then in the 19th century, the problem of Jesus and his miracles came into question.
There are many ways to study the Bible, since it is a great book of literature, one of the most studied books of all time. There are Bible study groups all over the world, and throughout the USA. There are many courses on the study of the Bible, from grade school to post graduate classes. Thus, there are a number of technical ways to study the biblical texts. The goal of all critical studies is to discover the meaning and significance of these sacred canonical texts.
“Also there was
Son of Jozadak.
In their days
They built the house.
They raised a temple
Holy to the Lord,
Destined for everlasting glory.”
Jeshua son of Jozadak was also known as Joshua. Jeshua is also the Hebrew name for Jesus. This Jeshua returned with Zerubbabel as the first high priest in Jerusalem after the captivity from about 515-490 BCE. Certainly, he was instrumental in the rebuilding of the 2nd Temple with all its significance. They built this holy Temple that was destined for glory, for it still existed at the time of Sirach. Jeshua or Joshua was mentioned in the books of Ezra, chapter 2, and Zachariah, chapter 6.