Surrounded on every side (Lk 19:43-19:43)

“Indeed,

The days

Will come upon you,

When your enemies

Will set up ramparts

Around you.

They will hem you in

On every side.”

 

ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν,

 

Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that bad days were coming to Jerusalem (ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σὲ).  Jesus said that it would come to them when their enemies would put up a barricade against them (καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι).  They would surround them (καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε) so that they would be hemmed in on every side (καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν).  This is the only Greek biblical use of the word περικυκλώσουσίν that means to hem them in on every side, encircle, surround, or encompass.  Jesus was using the words and images of the ancient Israelite prophets against Jerusalem.  Isaiah, chapter 29:1-3, called Jerusalem Ariel, a symbolic name for Jerusalem and its altar.  Isaiah, warned Jerusalem about what was going to happen to it.  Yahweh was going to encamp against it and set up siege works against it.  They would be able to speak only from below the earth and the dust.  Their voices would be reduced to a whisper, like a ghost in the middle of this dust pile.  Jeremiah, chapter 6:6-8, warned Jerusalem that its enemies were going to cut down trees in order to make a ramp siege against Jerusalem, because this city needed to be punished.  There was nothing but oppression and wickedness within her.  Jerusalem was a place of violence and destruction with sickness and wounded people all around.  Yahweh was going to turn away in disgust against Jerusalem. Thus, it would become a desolate uninhabited land, if it did not heed his warning.  Ezekiel, chapter 4:1-3, also condemned Jerusalem with Ezekiel’s symbolic action.  A voice told Ezekiel to be an expert model Lego builder of the siege of Jerusalem.  Ezekiel, the son of man, was to take a brick and portray the city of Jerusalem.  He was to put the siege works with a siege wall against this city.  He was to put a ramp and camps against this city with battering rams all around it.  Then he was to take an iron plate and make an iron wall between himself and the city, looking at it.  Thus, there was a state of siege, a sign for the house of Israel.  Ezekiel was part of the exiles from 598 BCE before the taking of Jerusalem and the second captivity in 587 BCE.  Of course, here this was allusion to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman soldiers putting down a revolution in Judea.  Luke would have known about this at the time of his writing.  Have you ever seen a city destroyed?

They were shamed (Lk 13:17-13:17)

“When Jesus said this,

All his opponents

Were put to shame.

The entire crowd

Was rejoicing

At all the wonderful things

That he was doing.”

 

καὶ ταῦτα λέγοντος αὐτοῦ κατῃσχύνοντο πάντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι αὐτῷ, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος ἔχαιρεν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐνδόξοις τοῖς γινομένοις ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that when Jesus said this (καὶ ταῦτα λέγοντος αὐτοῦ), all his opponents (πάντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι αὐτῷ,) were put to shame (κατῃσχύνοντο).  The entire crowd (καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος) was rejoicing (ἔχαιρεν) at all the wonderful things that he was doing (ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐνδόξοις τοῖς γινομένοις ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ).  Jesus had turned this Jewish synagogue crowd around.  Now they were rejoicing and happy about him curing this crippled woman on the Sabbath.  So ends this unique story of Luke about curing the crippled woman on the Sabbath.  What do you think is the relationship between sickness and satanic possession?

 

Free from infirmity (Lk 13:12-13:12)

“When Jesus saw her,

He called her over.

He said to her.

‘Woman!

You are set free

From your ailment.’”

 

ἰδὼν δὲ αὐτὴν ὁ Ἰησοῦς προσεφώνησεν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Γύναι, ἀπολέλυσαι τῆς ἀσθενείας σου,

 

Luke uniquely said that Jesus saw her (ἰδὼν δὲ αὐτὴν).  He then called her over near to him (ὁ Ἰησοῦς προσεφώνησεν).  He then said to her (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ), calling her woman (Γύναι), that she would be set free from her ailment or sickness (ἀπολέλυσαι τῆς ἀσθενείας σου).  Obviously, Jesus would have noticed this bent over lady, which is often common among older men and women because of osteoporosis or weakening of the backbone.  He called her over to cure her of her infirmity.  He was going to see her free from the evil spirit that had caused this problem.  Have you ever seen a person recover from being bent over?

Sins forgiven (Lk 5:20-5:20)

“When Jesus

Saw their faith,

He said.

‘Friend!

Your sins

Are forgiven you!’”

 

καὶ ἰδὼν τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν εἶπεν Ἄνθρωπε, ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου.

 

Luke said that when Jesus saw their faith (καὶ ἰδὼν τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν), he said to him (εἶπεν), calling him friend or man (Ἄνθρωπε), that his sins were forgiven (ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου).  This is almost word for word like Mark, chapter 2:5, and Matthew, chapter 9:2, so that Mark might be the source of this saying.  Mark said that Jesus noticed their faith.  He then said to the paralytic that his sins were forgiven or taken away.  The idea that sickness and sin had a common connection was prevalent.  In fact, Jesus called this paralyzed man son in Mark and Matthew, but Luke called him man or friend, not son.  Matthew said that Jesus, noticing their faith, then told the paralytic to have courage, because his sins were forgiven.  Faith and healing seemed to go hand in hand.

Jesus forgives the sins of the paralytic (Mk 2:5-2:5)

“When Jesus

Saw their faith,

He said

To the paralytic.

‘My son!

Your sins are forgiven.’”

 

καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ· Τέκνον, ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι.

 

This is almost word for word the same as Luke, chapter 5:20, and Matthew, chapter 9:2, so that Mark might be the source of this saying.  Mark said that Jesus noticed or saw them and their faith (καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν), which is exactly the same wording as Matthew, chapter 9:2.  He then said to the paralytic (λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ) that his sins were forgiven or taken away (ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι).  The idea that sickness and sin had a common connection was prevalent.  In fact, Jesus called this paralyzed man son (Τέκνον), like Matthew, but Luke called him man or friend, not son.  Faith and healing seemed to go hand in hand, but there was no mention of a healing here yet.

They brought sick and possessed people to Jesus (Mk 1:32-1:33)

“That evening,

After sunset,

They brought to him

All who were sick

Or possessed

With demons.

The whole city

Was gathered

Around the door.”

 

Ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης, ὅτε ἔδυσεν ὁ ἥλιος, ἔφερον πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας καὶ τοὺς δαιμονιζομένους·

καὶ ἦν ὅλη ἡ πόλις ἐπισυνηγμένη πρὸς τὴν θύραν.

 

Matthew, chapter 8:16, has something similar, as well as Luke, chapter 4:40.  Neither had any mention of the whole city gathered at his door.  Luke never mentioned possessed people, since he concentrated on the sick only.  Mark said that as evening came (Ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης), after the sunset (ὅτε ἔδυσεν ὁ ἥλιος), they brought to him (ἔφερον πρὸς αὐτὸν) all who had a sickness (πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας) or were possessed with demons (καὶ τοὺς δαιμονιζομένους).  Mark said that everyone or the whole city (καὶ ἦν ὅλη ἡ πόλις) was gathered around his door (ἐπισυνηγμένη πρὸς τὴν θύραν).  Apparently, during biblical times, there were a lot of people who were possessed by the devil.  Jesus was also a daring faith healer, since many saw the connection between sickness and demonic evil spirit possession.

Third narrative

This third narrative centered around a variety of miracles and various comments to his disciples.  Jesus cured the leper before great crowds, but then told him to keep it a secret.  Then he cured the centurion’s paralyzed servant at Capernaum.  This Roman soldier understood the role of authority since he had faith.  Jesus chastised the failure of the sons of Abraham but healed the Roman centurion’s servant.

Jesus also cured other sick and possessed people, including Peter’s mother-in-law.  He thus fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah.  He had some scribe followers, even though Jesus was homeless.  Was the death of a father enough to disrupt a disciple?  During a stormy boat ride, they woke up Jesus.  Thus, he responded by showing them his power by calming the storm.

Jesus cured the two possessed demoniacs who were calling out to him as the Son of God.  These demons wanted to be pigs, so that they died in the sea, jumping off a cliff.  However, the herdsmen in the city were upset so that the people asked Jesus to leave.

Jesus then went home and cured a paralytic.  Did Jesus blaspheme?  What was the difference between sin and sickness?  The people were amazed at his powers.  Jesus then called Matthew, the tax collector.  Jesus hung out with these tax collectors and sinners, so that the Pharisees complained.  Jesus responded by asking if well people needed doctors?  Then there was a citation from Hosea about mercy.

The Pharisees wanted to know why his disciples were not fasting, but the disciples of John the Baptist were.  Jesus explained that there would be no fasting while he, the bridegroom, was present.  You did not use old cloth to mend clothes or put new wine in old wineskins.

Then Jesus cured the woman with hemorrhages, because she was a woman of faith.  Then he cured the dead girl who was only sleeping.  He cured the two blind men because they were believers also.  He cured the mute person so that he could speak again.  The Pharisees questioned the power of Jesus.  However, Jesus had compassion for the sheep because there would be a need for many laborers at the harvest time.

Then Jesus began his apostolic talk to his disciples, in particular about the authority of the twelve disciples, with four major apostles.  Matthew then listed the twelve apostles that would be sent to the Jews and what their work was.  Jesus told them what to bring with them and where to stay.  He told them how to enter a house.  Those unhospitable towns who did not accept them would be punished.  These apostles should be like wise simple sheep.  When they would be persecuted, the Holy Spirit would speak through them.  They would be involved in family disputes and hated.  Both the teacher and his disciples would suffer, but they should not be afraid.  They should proclaim the message.  They were to worry about their souls, since they had more value than sparrows.  They should acknowledge Jesus whether in peace or with the sword.  Who was worthy of Jesus?  You had to pick up your cross and lose your life to find it.  Receive Jesus and be a prophet as the righteous disciple of Jesus.