“Some of the Pharisees
In the crowd
Said to Jesus.
Order your disciples
καί τινες τῶν Φαρισαίων ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Διδάσκαλε, ἐπιτίμησον τοῖς μαθηταῖς σου.
Only Luke mentioned this problem with the Pharisees. Some of the Pharisees (καί τινες τῶν Φαρισαίων) who were in the crowd (ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου) spoke to Jesus (εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν), calling him teacher (Διδάσκαλε). They asked him to contain, rebuke, or order his disciples to stop (ἐπιτίμησον τοῖς μαθηταῖς σου) with their shouts. Notice that Luke mentioned that these Pharisees were in the crowd with his disciples. They also were respectful, calling Jesus a teacher. However, they wanted his disciples to stop this public display of affection for Jesus. They felt that only Jesus could put an end to this boisterous celebration. Have you ever been to an outdoor religious celebration?
“Thus says Yahweh.
‘For three transgressions
And for four,
I will not revoke
Because he burned to lime
Of the king of Edom.
I will send a fire
It shall devour
Moab shall die
Amid the sound
Of the trumpet.
I will cut off
From its midst.
I will kill
All its officials with him.’
Moab was the ancient enemy of Israel on the southeast side of the Jordan River. According to Genesis, chapter 19, the Moabites were the descendants of Lot through the incest he had with his daughter. Yahweh, via Amos, invoked the same language as he had used against Damascus, the Philistines, Tyre, Edom, and Ammon. He also used the same non-forgiving numeric formula of 3 and 4, as in Proverbs, chapter 30. The Moabites apparently burned the bones of the king of Edom in lime. Edom was their southern neighbors, so that this was a terrible insulting crime. Thus, Yahweh was going to punish the people of Moab by devouring their fortresses at Kerioth. Moab was going to die in a great tumult, with uproars, shouts, and trumpets. Yahweh would kill their ruler and all their officials. This clearly was an oracle of Yahweh, via Amos.
“Restore our fortunes!
Like the watercourses in the Negeb!
May those who sow in tears
Reap with shouts of joy!
May those who go out weeping,
Bearing the seed for sowing,
Come home with shouts of joy,
Carrying their sheaves.”
This short psalm ends with a cry or prayer for the restoration of Israel. They wanted their fortunes restored. They wanted to be like the arid land of the Negeb south of Israel with just enough water. They would sow in tears but reap in joy. They would go out weeping with their seeds. However, they would come home with shouts of joy with their wheat harvest sheaves full.
“God has gone up with a shout.
Yahweh has gone up
With the sound of a trumpet.
Sing praises to God!
Sing praises to our King!
In case you missed the point, “sing praises to God.” This refrain is repeated 4 times. There must be noise. There were shouts and at least a trumpet. They were to sing praises to God, the King, Yahweh. This psalm may have been used in the transport of the Ark of the Covenant.
“Rejoice in Yahweh!
O you righteous!
Praise befits the upright.
Praise Yahweh with the lyre!
Make melody to him
With the harp of ten strings!
Sing to him a new song!
Play skillfully on the strings
With loud shouts.”
There is nothing here about this Psalm 33 that indicates that it came from David since there is no introduction to this psalm at all. This clearly is a Temple hymn, a call to worship Yahweh. The righteous were to rejoice in Yahweh. They should offer praise that befits an upright people. They were to praise Yahweh with the lyre, an ancient horseshoe shaped frame with strings. They were to make a melody to Yahweh. They were to use a ten stringed harp. They were to sing a new song. They were to play on the strings skillfully, not in a sloppy manner. Finally they had the loud shouts, like the shouts for war, as Yahweh would lead them on to victory.
“Who has let the wild ass go free?
Who has loosed the bonds of the swift ass?
I have given the steppe for its home.
I have given the salt land for its dwelling place.
It scorns the tumult of the city.
It does not hear the shouts of the driver.
It ranges the mountains as its pasture.
It searches after every green thing.”
Once again there is a series of questions and answers about wild animals. This time it is the wild donkeys. Why are they so fast? Yahweh has given them a home in the steppe and the salt land. They live far from the tumult of the city and the shouts of drivers. They pasture in the mountains seeking green things. Somehow Yahweh wants to show the importance of wild animals.
“When Apollonius son of Menestheus was sent to Egypt for the coronation of Philometor as king, King Antiochus learned that Philometor had become hostile to his government. The king took measures for his own security. Therefore upon arriving at Joppa, he proceeded to Jerusalem. He was welcomed magnificently by Jason and the city. He was ushered in with a blaze of torches and with shouts. Then he marched his army into Phoenicia.”
Apollonius, the governor, was sent to Egypt for the coronation of the new King Ptolemy VI the Philometor about 175 BCE. The mother of King Ptolemy VI, Cleopatra I, had died when he was only 10 years old. His father King Ptolemy V had died in 180 BCE so that he technically was king when he was 5 years old. However, he ruled with his mother until she died. In 174 BCE, at the age of 11, he married his sister Cleopatra II. He ruled in Egypt until 146 BCE. However, Apollonius learned that King Ptolemy VI and his advisors had turned anti-Syrian rather than pro-Syrian like his mother and father. Then King Antiochus IV (175-164 BCE) decided to make a trip to Joppa and Jerusalem. Jason and the people of Jerusalem warmly welcomed him, before he went to Phoenicia.
“Bagoas went in as he knocked at the entry of the tent. He assumed that General Holofernes was sleeping with Judith. But when no one answered, he opened it. Then he went into the bedchamber. There he found General Holofernes sprawled on the floor dead, with his head missing. He cried out with a loud voice. He wept, groaned and shouted. He tore his clothes. Then he went to the tent where Judith had stayed. When he did not find her, he rushed out to the people and shouted.
‘The slaves have tricked us!
One Hebrew woman has brought disgrace
On the house of King Nebuchadnezzar!
General Holofernes is lying on the ground!
His head is missing!’
When the leaders of the Assyrian army heard this, they tore their tunics. They were greatly dismayed. Their loud cries and shouts rose up throughout the camp.”
Bagoas was the chief personal steward of General Holofernes. He politely knocked at the entry way to the general’s tent. He thought that the general was sleeping with Judith and did not want to disturb him. However, when no one answered, he entered the bedchamber. There he found the general sprawled out on the floor beheaded. He was really upset. He wept, groaned, and shouted as he tore his clothes. When people were upset they would tear their clothes. Then he went to the tent of Judith to see how she was. However, she was gone. Then he realized what had happened. He ran out of the tent shouting that they had been tricked by the slaves. This Hebrew woman had brought disgrace to the house of King Nebuchadnezzar. The general was dead with his head missing. When the Assyrian army leaders heard this, they tore their clothes as they too were dismayed. Thus there were loud shouts throughout the camp. Strangely enough, there was no second in command to take over things.