“But he will say.
‘I tell you!
I do not know
Where you come from.
All you evildoers!’”
καὶ ἐρεῖ λέγων ὑμῖν Οὐκ οἶδα πόθεν ἐστέ· ἀπόστητε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ πάντες ἐργάται ἀδικίας.
Luke continued with the response of Jesus with a solemn pronouncement (καὶ ἐρεῖ λέγων ὑμῖν) that he did not know where they came from (Οὐκ οἶδα πόθεν ἐστέ). They were to go away from him (ἀπόστητε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ), since they were all evildoers, workers of evil (πάντες ἐργάται ἀδικίας). This verse is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 7:23, from the Sermon on the Mount, perhaps a Q source. Jesus was going to declare to them that he never knew them, because they were evildoers. Just as David had told the evildoers to depart in Psalm 6:13, Jesus wanted these evildoers to leave him alone. Who were these evil doers? They seem like friendly disciples of Jesus. What evil had they done to make them unworthy on the final judgment day? The answer was not clear. Would you consider yourself an evil doer?
“Then you will begin
In our streets.’”
τότε ἄρξεσθε λέγειν Ἐφάγομεν ἐνώπιόν σου καὶ ἐπίομεν, Ἐφάγομεν ἐνώπιόν σου καὶ ἐπίομεν
Luke continued with Jesus saying that they would begin to say (τότε ἄρξεσθε λέγειν) that they ate and drank with him (Ἐφάγομεν ἐνώπιόν σου καὶ ἐπίομεν). He had taught in their streets (Ἐφάγομεν ἐνώπιόν σου καὶ ἐπίομεν). This verse is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 7:22, from the Sermon on the Mount, perhaps a Q source. Matthew had Jesus say that on that day, the judgment day, many would say to him Lord! Lord (Κύριε Κύριε)! Did we not prophesize in your name? Did we not cast out demons in your name? Did we not do many great marvelous works in your name? In Luke here, they said that they had ate and drank with Jesus. They let him teach in their streets and towns. In other words, they were friends. Do you worry about lost friends?
“Jesus said to them.
‘Strive to enter
Through the narrow door!
I tell you!
Many will try
And will not be able.’”
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς
Ἀγωνίζεσθε εἰσελθεῖν διὰ τῆς στενῆς θύρας, ὅτι πολλοί, λέγω ὑμῖν, ζητήσουσιν εἰσελθεῖν καὶ οὐκ ἰσχύσουσιν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) that they were to strive (Ἀγωνίζεσθε) to enter (εἰσελθεῖν) through the narrow door (διὰ τῆς στενῆς θύρας). With a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν), Jesus said that many people (ὅτι πολλοί) would try to enter (ζητήσουσιν εἰσελθεῖν), but not be able to do so (καὶ οὐκ ἰσχύσουσιν). This saying of Jesus is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 7:13-14, where it was part of the Sermon on the Mount, not a response to a question. Matthew had Jesus go into great detail about the narrow gate and not a door. Jesus wanted them to enter the narrow gate (ἰσέλθατε διὰ τῆς στενῆς πύλης). Matthew in his description of the wide or spacious gate (ὅτι πλατεῖα ἡ πύλη καὶ εὐρύχωρος) used two words for wide and spacious, “πλατεῖα” and “εὐρύχωρος,” that never appear elsewhere in the New Testament. The easy way of the wide gate led to destruction (ἡ ὁδὸς ἡ ἀπάγουσα εἰς τὴν ἀπώλειαν). Many people were entering through this wide destructive easy gate (καὶ πολλοί εἰσιν οἱ εἰσερχόμενοι δι’ αὐτῆς). On the other hand, the narrow gate (ὅτι στενὴ ἡ πύλη) had a difficult way, leading to life (καὶ τεθλιμμένη ἡ ὁδὸς ἡ ἀπάγουσα εἰς τὴν ζωήν). Only a few people were able to find their way through this difficult hard narrow life filled gate (καὶ ὀλίγοι εἰσὶν οἱ εὑρίσκοντες αὐτήν). This idea of two ways can be found also in Deuteronomy, chapter 30:15-20, and among other religions with the way of death and the way of life. The early Christian teachings of the Didache used this concept, as did many other dualistic religions that pointed to the choice of life or death, good or bad. As you had basic choices in life, God was giving you this choice, life and prosperity with the narrow gate or death and adversity with the wide gate. You had a choice between two gates. The choice of path was yours. Do you prefer the wide or the narrow door?
At his disciples.
‘Blessed are you
Who are poor!
The kingdom of God.”
Καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἔλεγεν Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοί, ὅτι ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ.
Luke said that Jesus looked up at his disciples (Καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ). He said (ἔλεγεν) that the poor are blessed or happy (Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοί), using the second person plural. Their reward would be the kingdom of God (ὅτι ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ). This sermon on the plain is somewhat similar to the sermon on the mount in Matthew, chapters 5-7. Most people speak about the 8 beatitudes of Jesus on the mountain, since they feature the key points of Jesus’ preaching that was founded on the Hebrew Scriptures. What does “blessed (Μακάριοι)” mean? This Greek word Μακάριοι appeared over 68 times in the Greek Septuagint Old Testament, especially in the Psalms. God will bless these people, so that they will be the fortunate ones, the happy ones, the wise ones. There are echoes of Psalm 32, where the happy and blessed ones are those who have had their sins forgiven, since they have no deceit in their hearts. The blessed people are the poor, the hungry, the mourners, and those being persecuted. Number one is the poor. However, right off the bat, there is a difference with Matthew. chapter 5:3, who used the term the “poor in spirit (οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι).” What did Matthew mean by this “poor in spirit” or spiritual poverty? There is a whole Judaic tradition about the oppressed poor and the humble of the land, as in the prophets Isaiah, chapter 61:1 and 66:2, and Zephaniah, chapter 2:3, but that was not spiritual poverty. Perhaps, this was more like the lack of concern for material things, whether you are actually poor or not. For Luke, it was black or white, poor or not. The 2nd major difference was the reward. Matthew talked about what they would possess, the kingdom of the heavens (ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν), while Luke said it was the kingdom of God (ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ), plain and simple.
This second narrative centered around the Sermon on the Mount and the famous so-called Beatitudes. The first beatitude was about poverty, while the second beatitude was about mourning. The third beatitude was about the meek or the humble. The fourth beatitude was about righteousness. The fifth beatitude was on mercy, while the sixth beatitude was about the pure of heart. The seventh beatitude was on peacemakers, while the eighth beatitude was on persecution. There was a grand blessing for the persecuted Christians, who were the salt of the earth and the light of the world. They had to value and become the lighted lamp.
Next came the law and the prophets. The law with all its commandments remained. The righteous ones would not murder, nor would they get angry with insults. They would offer their gifts at the Temple. They would pay their debts and not commit adultery. Jesus warned against the sinning eye and the sinning right hand. He favored the traditional divorce stance, but warned about marrying a divorced woman. They should not bear false witness, nor swear at all, since they should have a simple speech. No longer was it an eye for an eye, but rather turn the other cheek with unusual kindness. They were to love their enemies and their heavenly Father with a perfect love.
The followers of Jesus should fast and pray. We should have piety with almsgiving. Our charity and prayer should be secret with short prayers. Thus, there was the famous “Our Father” prayer. The first part of the Lord’s prayer was about God the Father. The second part of the Lord’s prayer was about our human problems. We should seek forgiveness and fast in secret. We should not want earthly treasures, but heavenly treasures. We need to have a healthy eye because we cannot serve two masters.
We should trust in Providence. We do not need to worry. Just look at the birds who do not worry. The lilies of the field have more beauty than Solomon in all his glory. Seek the kingdom of heaven first and you will not have to worry about tomorrow.
As far as judgment was concerned, do not judge the speck in the eye of your neighbor. Be careful with your holy treasures. Be seekers and give to your sons. Pray to your heavenly Father and follow the golden rule. The gate was narrow and there were many false prophets. Know them by their fruits. The sound tree has good fruits. Cut down the bad tree. Seek the kingdom of heaven. Stay away from evildoers. Wise men build on a rock foundation, while the foolish ones build on a sand foundation. The crowds were astonished at the authority of Jesus.
“When Jesus had finished
The crowds were astonished
At his teaching,”
Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοὺς λόγους τούτους, ἐξεπλήσσοντο οἱ ὄχλοι ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ
Matthew has a transition phrase, that also was in Luke, chapter 7:1. Mark also has something like in chapter 1:21. Jesus seems to have finished these sayings (Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοὺς λόγους τούτους) or the sermon on the Mount. The crowds of people were astonished or amazed (ἐξεπλήσσοντο οἱ ὄχλοι) at his teaching (ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ). Clearly, Jesus made a big impression.