This parable story about the poor man Lazarus and an unnamed rich man is only found in Luke, but not in the other gospels. Luke indicated that Jesus said that the rich man called out (καὶ αὐτὸς φωνήσας εἶπεν) to Abraham, calling him father (Πάτερ Ἀβραάμ). He wanted Abraham to have mercy on him (ἐλέησόν με). He wanted him to send Lazarus (καὶ πέμψον Λάζαρον) to dip the tip of his finger (ἵνα βάψῃ τὸ ἄκρον τοῦ δακτύλου αὐτοῦ) in water (ὕδατος) to cool his tongue (καὶ καταψύξῃ τὴν γλῶσσάν μου) because he was suffering in agony (ὅτι ὀδυνῶμαι) from all those flames (ἐν τῇ φλογὶ ταύτῃ). Once again, Luke has a unique use among the biblical writers of the Greek word καταψύξῃ, meaning to cool or refresh. This rich man was suffering in a burning hell. He wanted Abraham to send Lazarus to make life easier for him. Are you afraid of a burning hell?
Luke indicated that Jesus continued with his unique story about the king planning a war. Jesus said that if this king realized that he could not defeat the other king (εἰ δὲ μήγε), then, while this other king was still far away (ἔτι αὐτοῦ πόρρω ὄντος), he would send a delegation (πρεσβείαν ἀποστείλας), asking for peace terms (ἐρωτᾷ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην). Make peace instead of war, if you are outmanned and have no realistic hope of success. Would you rather fight or make peace?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the Wisdom of God (διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν) said that he would send them prophets (Ἀποστελῶ εἰς αὐτοὺς προφήτας) and apostles (καὶ ἀποστόλους). However, they would kill (ἀποκτενοῦσιν) and persecute (καὶ διώξουσιν) some of them (καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:34, perhaps a Q source, about the killing of prophets. Jesus said, via Matthew, that he was going to send them prophets, sages or wise men, and scribes, the heroes of the Hebrew Scripture and the Mosaic Law. However, instead of respecting them, they were going to kill some, crucify some, and flog or scourge some in their synagogues. They were going to go from town to town persecuting some also. Jesus had mentioned the possibility of death or crucifixion for his followers earlier. Luke had Jesus slightly more restrained here. He mentioned the Wisdom of God (ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ) as he had done earlier in chapter 7:35, either indicating Holy Scripture or the personification of wisdom. What do you know about the wisdom of God?
Luke said that Jesus told the apostles and disciples (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς) to give this crowd something to eat (Δότε αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν ὑμεῖς.). However, they responded (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν) that they only had (Οὐκ εἰσὶν ἡμῖν πλεῖον) 5 loaves (ἢ ἄρτοι πέντε) and 2 fish (καὶ ἰχθύες δύο). Otherwise, they would have to go to buy (εἰ μήτι πορευθέντες ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν) some food (βρώματα) for all these people (εἰς πάντα τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον). The fact that Jesus wanted to feed everyone was recorded in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:16, Mark, chapter 6:37, and John, chapter 6:5-7, plus here in Luke. Despite the fact that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home, Jesus wanted to feed them there. Mark indicated that Jesus answered his disciples, telling them to give the people something to eat. Only Mark has this response of the disciples explaining the problem of buying food. The disciples said to Jesus if they were to go to buy food, that it would cost about 200 denarii to buy enough bread for all these people to eat. A denarius was worth one day’s pay, so that that 200 denarii would be over a half year’s pay, a large amount of money. The disciples thought that Jesus wanted them to buy some bread for the crowd. In John, there was a conversation between Jesus and Philip about this. Mark indicated that Jesus told his disciples to go and see how many loaves of bread they had. Once the apostles found out, they said to Jesus that they only had 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish. Matthew said that despite the fact that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home, Jesus wanted to feed them there. Jesus said to his disciples that the crowds did need not to go away, because Jesus and his disciples were going to give them something to eat. The disciples replied to Jesus that they had practically no food to eat, only 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish. How much food do you need to eat well?
Luke said that when the day was growing to a close (Ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤρξατο κλίνειν), the twelve apostles came to Jesus (προσελθόντες δὲ οἱ δώδεκα). They said to him (ἶπαν αὐτῷ) to send the crowd away (Ἀπόλυσον τὸν ὄχλον), so that they might go into the surrounding villages and the countryside (ἵνα πορευθέντες εἰς τὰς κύκλῳ κώμας καὶ ἀγροὺς) to find lodging and provisions (καταλύσωσιν καὶ εὕρωσιν ἐπισιτισμόν). They said that they were in a deserted lonely place (ὅτι ὧδε ἐν ἐρήμῳ τόπῳ ἐσμέν). There were similar indications about this crowd needing to eat in Matthew, chapter 14:15, and Mark, chapter 6:35-36. Mark said that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home. After all, there were no fast food places to get something to eat. However, there were some places in the nearby villages where you could buy some food. Mark said that when it grew late, Jesus’ disciples came to him. They told him that they were in a deserted place. They wanted to send the crowds away, so that they could go into the surrounding region and nearby villages to buy food for themselves. This seemed like a good or reasonable plan. Matthew also said that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home. When it was evening, the disciples came to Jesus. They told him that there were in a deserted place at a late hour. They wanted to send the crowds away so that they could go into the nearby villages to buy food for themselves. Have you ever been in a large crowd without food?
Luke said that Jesus called the 12 apostles together (Συνκαλεσάμενος δὲ τοὺς δώδεκα). He gave them (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς) power (δύναμιν) and authority (καὶ ἐξουσίαν) over all the demons (πάντα τὰ δαιμόνια). He also gave them the power and authority to cure diseases (καὶ νόσους θεραπεύειν). This section about the power, the authority, and the mission of the 12 disciples or apostles is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:1, and Mark, chapter 6:7. Mark said that Jesus summoned or called his 12 apostles, as he began to send them out 2 by 2. He gave them authority over unclean or impure spirits. Thus, they could cast out or banish these evil spirits or demons. However, Mark did not mention curing diseases, illnesses, sicknesses, or weakness, just casting out the evil spirits that might have been the cause of their illnesses. Matthew said that Jesus summoned or called to him his 12 disciples. He called them disciples rather than the ambiguous “12.” He gave them spiritual authority over unclean or impure spirits. Thus, they could cast out or banish these evil spirits or demons. They were also able to cure, treat, or heal all diseases, illnesses, sicknesses, or weakness. In other words, Jesus was giving his own power or authority to cast out evil spirits and heal people to these 12 disciples or apostles. This was a big deal. The number 12 corresponded to the number of sons of Jacob or the 12 tribes of Israel. This authority will be referred to later as the apostolic authority. Jesus thus established these 12 disciples or apostles to carry on his work in casting out or exorcising evil spirits and curing people of their illnesses. What do you think about this apostolic authority?
Luke indicated that these unclean spirits or demons in the possessed man begged Jesus (καὶ παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν) not to order them (ἵνα μὴ ἐπιτάξῃ αὐτοῖς) to go away into the abyss (εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον ἀπελθεῖν), the home of the dead or evil spirits. There was something similar in Mark, chapter 5:10, but not in Matthew. Mark said that this demoniac begged, entreated, or beseeched Jesus many times not to send them, the evil unclean spirits, away to another country or out of this country. Luke said that these evil spirits did not want to go anywhere. These evil spirits wanted to remain where they were, since they were content there. Are you content where you are today?
As in Mark, chapter 1:11, Luke, had a voice from heaven address Jesus directly. In Matthew, chapter 3:17, this voice from the heavens did not address Jesus personally, while John, chapter 1, did not have any mention of a voice from heaven at all after the baptism of Jesus. The idea of a heavenly voice had a very strong tradition in the Hebrew Bible, especially among the prophets. Luke said that this voice came from heaven (καὶ φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γενέσθαι). It said that Jesus was his beloved son (Σὺ εἶ ὁ Υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός). He, the heavenly Father was well pleased with him (ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα). All this was in the second person singular. God the Father said that Jesus was his most beloved son in whom he was well pleased. The gospel writers did not clarify whether others saw and heard these things. In fact, this saying and incident after the baptism of Jesus might have been the basis for a Subordinationschristologie that Jesus the Son was somehow subordinate to the Father. According to this adoption theory, God the Father had to send his Spirit to anoint and empower Jesus in this concrete event, before he could begin his public ministry. This adoptionism theory, and the Christological disputes of the later 4th century CE, led to the diminution of this baptismal event within later patristic and medieval theological circles. Nevertheless, the baptism of Jesus has become the starting point for any theological reflection about early Christian initiation practices. It is not clear whether all the primitive Christian communities linked the baptism of Jesus with the baptism of the new followers of Christ, despite the fact that many post-apostolic Christians did so.
This is almost word for word, in Matthew, chapter 24:31. Mark said that the Son of Man would send out angels (καὶ τότε ἀποστελεῖ τοὺς ἀγγέλους). Thus, the angels were the apostles or sent ones for gathering the chosen ones. There was no mention of a trumpet call here, as in Matthew. These angels would gather his elect or chosen ones (καὶ ἐπισυνάξει τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς αὐτοῦ) from the four winds (ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων), from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven (ἀπ’ ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ). The Son of Man would send his apostolic angels to gather the chosen ones from all over the place.
Both Matthew, chapter 21:3, and Luke, chapter 19:31, are similar with slight differences. Matthew had a donkey and a colt, while Mark and Luke had just a colt. Mark indicated that Jesus said that if anyone asked them (καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ) about what they were doing (Τί ποιεῖτε τοῦτο), in this stealing of a young tied up colt, they were to say (εἴπατε) that the Lord needs to have this animal (Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει), as if that was some sort of secret password. Was this a secret disciple of Jesus in this village? Mark indicated that they were to say that Jesus would immediately send it back (αὐτὸν ἀποστέλλει πάλιν ὧδε), which was not in the other 2 gospel accounts.