The cloud overshadows them (Lk 9:34-9:34)

“While he was saying this,

A cloud came.

It overshadowed them.

They were terrified,

As they entered

The cloud.”

 

ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος ἐγένετο νεφέλη καὶ ἐπεσκίαζεν αὐτούς· ἐφοβήθησαν δὲ ἐν τῷ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν νεφέλην.

 

Luke said that while Peter was saying this (ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος), a cloud came (ἐγένετο νεφέλη) and overshadowed them (καὶ ἐπεσκίαζεν αὐτούς).  They were terrified (ἐφοβήθησαν), as they entered the cloud (δὲ ἐν τῷ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν νεφέλην).  This cloud can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:5-6, Mark, chapter 9:6-7, and here in LukeMark said that a cloud overshadowed them.  Mark also said that Peter was speechless, since he did not know what to say, as he, John, and James, were greatly terrified.  Matthew, like Luke, said that suddenly a bright cloud overshadowed them, while Peter was still speaking.  He also mentioned that the 3 apostles were afraid.  Would you be afraid if a cloud came down and enveloped you?

The centurion was not worthy (Lk 7:6-7:6)

“Jesus went

With the elders.

When he was not far

From the house,

The centurion

Sent friends

To say to him.

‘Lord!

Do not trouble yourself!

I am not worthy

To have you

Come under my roof.’”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐπορεύετο σὺν αὐτοῖς. ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας, ἔπεμψεν φίλους ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης λέγων αὐτῷ Κύριε, μὴ σκύλλου· οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς·

 

Luke said that Jesus went with these Jewish elders (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐπορεύετο σὺν αὐτοῖς).  When he was not far from the house (ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας), this centurion sent his friends (ἔπεμψεν φίλους ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης) to speak to Jesus, addressing him as Lord (λέγων αὐτῷ Κύριε).  They said that Jesus should not trouble himself (μὴ σκύλλου) because this centurion was not worthy (οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι) to have Jesus come under his roof (ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς).  However, Jesus was willing to heal this paralyzed young man.  This saying of the centurion’s friends is exactly the same as the centurion himself in Matthew, chapter 8:8, perhaps indicating a Q source.  The Roman centurion’s friends called Jesus “Lord.”  Then there is the famous saying of this centurion and his friends that he was not worthy to have such an important man as Jesus enter into his house.  This saying about not being worthy has entered into the Roman Catholic liturgy as a prayer before receiving Holy Communion.  Do you consider yourself worthy to have Jesus enter your house?

Your brother’s eye (Lk 6:42-6:42)

“How can you say

To your brother?

‘Brother!

Let me take out

The speck

In your eye!’

When you yourself

Do not see

The log

In your own eye.

‘You hypocrite!

First take the log

Out of your own eye!

Then you will see clearly

To take the speck out

In your brother’s eye.’”

 

πῶς δύνασαι λέγειν τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου Ἀδελφέ, ἄφες ἐκβάλω τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σου, αὐτὸς τὴν ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ δοκὸν οὐ βλέπων; ὑποκριτά, ἔκβαλε πρῶτον τὴν δοκὸν ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σοῦ, καὶ τότε διαβλέψεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου ἐκβαλεῖν

 

Luke had this saying of Jesus that is almost exactly the same as in Matthew, chapter 7:4-5, indicating a common Q source.  Luke indicated that Jesus said how can they say to their brother (πῶς δύνασαι λέγειν τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου), dear brother (Ἀδελφέ), let me take out the speck or splinter in your eye (ἄφες ἐκβάλω τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σου), when they did not see the log or beam in their own eye (αὐτὸς τὴν ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ δοκὸν οὐ βλέπων).  They were hypocrites (ὑποκριτά).  The Greek word “ὑποκριτά” means actors, deceitful ones, dissemblers, pretenders, a two-faced person, someone who says one thing, but does another.  Matthew used this term more often than anyone else in the New Testament literature, usually referring to the enemies of Jesus.  First, they had to take the log or beam out of their own eye (ἔκβαλε πρῶτον τὴν δοκὸν ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σοῦ) so that they could see clearly (καὶ τότε διαβλέψεις) to take the speck out of their brother’s eye (τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου ἐκβαλεῖν).  Everything is in the eye of the beholder.  Fraternal correction starts at home with oneself.  Are you a hypocrite?

The speck and the log (Lk 6:41-6:41)

“Why do you see

The speck

In your neighbor’s eye?

But you do not

Notice the log

In your own eye?”

 

Τί δὲ βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου, τὴν δὲ δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ οὐ κατανοεῖς;

 

Luke had this saying of Jesus that is almost exactly the same as in Matthew, chapter 7:3, indicating a common Q source.  Jesus wanted to know why they saw the speck, the splinter, or the chip (τί δὲ βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος) in their brother’s eye (τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου), but they did not notice the log or beam in their own eye (τὴν δὲ δοκὸν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ οὐ κατανοεῖς)?  This indicated how foolish it was to correct others when you were doing worse things yourself.  Are you a nag with others, while overlooking your own bad habits?

Forgive others! (Lk 6:37-6:37)

“Forgive!

Then you will be forgiven.”

 

ἀπολύετε, καὶ ἀπολυθήσεσθε·

 

Luke indicated that Jesus told his followers to forgive others (ἀπολύετε).  Then they would be forgiven (καὶ ἀπολυθήσεσθε).  This saying about forgiveness seems similar to Mark, chapter 11:25, and Matthew, chapter 6:14-15.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that whenever they would stand and pray, they should forgive others, especially if they had anything against anyone.  Then their heavenly Father would also forgive them.  Matthew had Jesus say that their heavenly Father would forgive them if they forgave others for their missteps or trespasses.  On the other hand, if they did not forgive others, their heavenly Father would not forgive them.  This came right after the “Our Father” prayer in Matthew.  Do you really forgive other people?

Do to others! (Lk 6:31-6:31)

“Do to others

As you would have them

Do to you!”

 

καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to his followers to do the same to others (ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως), like they would wish other men to do to them (καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι).  Once again, this was in the second person plural imperative.  Matthew, chapter 7:12, has something similar, perhaps indicating a common Q source.  This saying is often known throughout the world as the philosophical golden rule.  Matthew said that whatever you wanted other men to do to you (Πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι), you should do to them the same (οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς).  Matthew emphasized that this was already in the Hebrew Torah, the Law and among the various Judaic prophets, while Luke never mentioned the Law and the prophets.  Pure and simple, treat other people the way that you would want to be treated.

The example of David (Lk 6:4-6:4)

“David entered

The house of God.

He took

The bread of the Presence.

He ate it.

This was not lawful

For anyone,

But the priests

To eat.

He also gave some

To his companions.’”

 

ὡς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως λαβὼν ἔφαγεν καὶ ἔδωκεν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτοῦ, οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that David entered the house of God (ὡς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ).  He took (λαβὼν) the show bread of the Presence (καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως) and ate it (ἔφαγεν).  He also gave some to his companions (καὶ ἔδωκεν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτοῦ).  However, this was not lawful for them to eat it (οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν), since it was only for the priests (εἰ μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς).  Matthew, chapter 12:4, and Mark, chapter 2:26, are similar to Luke, so that perhaps Mark may be the origin of this saying of Jesus.  Jesus cited the example of David in 1 Samuel, chapter 21:1-6.  Luke did not mention some of the incorrect details about the high priest that were in Mark and Matthew.  In 1 Samuel, David went to the Levite town of Nob, not the house of God as mentioned here.  There Ahimelech was the high priest, not Abiathar as Mark and Matthew indicated.  David said that he was hungry and needed bread for himself and his men.  However, they only had consecrated holy bread for the sacrifices, not common bread.  This showbread, the bread of the Presence, was 12 loaves or cakes of bread that was replaced weekly in the holy place in the Temple that symbolized communion with God.  Either he took it or the priest then gave him the holy bread anyway.  He and his companions ate the bread of the Presence or sacred Levite bread.  However, it was not lawful for them to eat it, because only the Levite priests were allowed to eat this sacred bread.  Thus, Jesus used this example of David to answer the Pharisees, although there are some discrepancies in this story about David.

What did David do? (Lk 6:3-6:3)

“Jesus answered.

‘Have you not read

What David did

When he

And his companions

Were hungry?”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε ὃ ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ ὁπότε ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὄντες;

 

Luke said that Jesus answered the Pharisees (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς αὐτοὺς).  He asked them (εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) if they had not read (Οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε) what David did (ὃ ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ) when (ὁπότε) he and his companions with him (αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὄντες) were hungry (ἐπείνασεν).  Matthew, chapter 12:3, and Mark, chapter 2:25, are similar to Luke, so that perhaps Mark may be the origin of this saying of Jesus.  Jesus asked that the Pharisees if they had read the unnamed book of Samuel.  The assumption would be that since they were followers of the Law that they could read.  The reference was to 1 Samuel, chapter 21:1-6.

The wineskins (Lk 5:37-5:37)

“No one

Puts new wine

Into old wineskins.

Otherwise,

The new wine

Will burst

The skins.

It will be spilled.

The skins

Will be destroyed.”

 

καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μήγε, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος ὁ νέος τοὺς ἀσκούς, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐκχυθήσεται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπολοῦνται

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that no one puts new wine (καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον) into old wineskins (εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς).  Otherwise (εἰ δὲ μήγε), the new wine will burst the wineskins (ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος ὁ νέος τοὺς ἀσκούς).  The wine will be spilled (καὶ αὐτὸς ἐκχυθήσεται).  The skins will be destroyed (καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπολοῦνται).  Mark, chapter 2:22, and Matthew, chapter 9:17, are similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying about wineskins.  Mark and Matthew had Jesus continue with his metaphors or parables.  No one would pour new wine into old wineskins or leather pouches, because the pouches would crack.  Thus, the old wineskins would burst open.  The new wine would be spilled, lost, or destroyed, as well as the wine containers themselves.

Fasting in the future (Lk 5:35-5:35)

“The days will come

When the bridegroom

Will be taken away

From them.

Then they will fast

In those days.’”

 

ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, καὶ ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the days were coming (ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι) when the bridegroom would be taken away from them (καὶ ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος).  Then, they would fast in those days (τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις).  Mark, chapter 2:35, and Matthew, chapter 9:15, are word for word similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying of Jesus.  They remarked that Jesus said that the days were coming when the bridegroom, Jesus, would be taken away from them.  Thus, after his death, then they would fast, since fasting would come when Jesus was gone.