Love your enemies! (Lk 6:27-6:27)

“But I say to you!

Listen!

Love your enemies!

Do good

To those

Who hate you!”

 

Ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς ἀκούουσιν Ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς,

 

Luke then indicated that Jesus issued a solemn pronouncement (Ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς) that they should listen (ἀκούουσιν).  He clearly unambiguously said to love your enemies (Ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν) and do good to those who hate you (καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς).  This was a very strong statement that can be also found in Matthew, chapter 5:44, so that it might be from the Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that they were to love their enemies (ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν), word for word as here in Luke.  Jesus added that they should even pray for those who were persecuting them (καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς).  Perhaps, many of the followers of Jesus at that time were actually being persecuted.  They were to do good to those who were spitefully accusing them, hating them, and persecuting them (καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς, καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς, καὶ διωκόντων ὑμᾶς).  These early Christians were asked to be generous to their enemies and persecutors, as both Matthew and Luke indicated here.  This was a radical statement of love that went beyond loving your neighbor.  Love your enemy.  Do good to him.

Jesus sat down (Lk 4:20-4:20)

“He rolled up

The scroll.

He gave it back

To the attendant.

He sat down.

The eyes of all

In the synagogue

Were fixed on him.”

 

καὶ πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον ἀποδοὺς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ ἐκάθισεν· καὶ πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἦσαν ἀτενίζοντες αὐτῷ.

 

This is unique to Luke, as he once again explained details about this Nazareth Sabbath synagogue service.  After Jesus had finished reading the passage from Isaiah, he rolled up the scroll (καὶ πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον).  Then he gave it back or delivered it to the attendant (ἀποδοὺς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ).  Finally, he sat down (ἐκάθισεν), which was the common practice of teachers.  Meanwhile, the eyes of everyone (καὶ πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ) in the synagogue (ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ) were fixed on him (ἦσαν ἀτενίζοντες αὐτῷ) to see what he was going to say.

They were afraid (Mk 9:6-9:6)

“Peter did not know

What to say.

They were terrified.”

 

οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει τί ἀποκριθῇ· ἔκφοβοι γὰρ ἐγένοντο.

 

This unique saying of Mark seems like it should be after the voice from heaven.  However, it is here.  Mark said the Peter was speechless, since he did not know what to say (οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει τί ἀποκριθῇ).  He, John, and James were greatly terrified (ἔκφοβοι γὰρ ἐγένοντο).

The forgiveness of sins (Mk 3:28-3:28)

“Truly!

I say to you!

People will be forgiven

For their sins.

They will be forgiven

For whatever blasphemies

They utter.”

 

Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πάντα ἀφεθήσεται τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, τὰ ἁμαρτήματα καὶ αἱ βλασφημίαι, ὅσα ἐὰν βλασφημήσωσιν·

 

This is the first instance of Mark with a solemn pronouncement of “I say to you!”  There were similar statements like this in Matthew, chapter 12:31, and Luke, chapter 12:10.  Mark has Jesus tell them with a solemn proclamation (Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  God would forgive all human sins of the sons of men (ὅτι πάντα ἀφεθήσεται τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων) as well as whatever blasphemies they utter (καὶ αἱ βλασφημίαι, ὅσα ἐὰν βλασφημήσωσιν).  These blasphemies were abusive or bad language about God.  This sounds great about everything able to be forgiven.

Jesus poses a question (Mk 2:9-2:9)

“Which is easier,

To say to the paralytic?

‘Your sins are forgiven!’

Or to say?

‘Rise!

Take up your pallet!

Walk!’”

 

τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν τῷ παραλυτικῷ Ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι, ἢ εἰπεῖν Ἔγειρε καὶ ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ περιπάτει;

 

Luke, chapter 5:23, and Matthew, chapter 9:8, are almost word for word to Mark, so that Mark might be the source of this saying.  Mark said that Jesus posed the question which was it easier to do, (τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον) to say to the paralytic (εἰπεῖν τῷ παραλυτικῷ) that your sins are forgiven (Ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι) or to say (ἢ εἰπεῖν) rise up or get up, take your pallet, and walk (Ἔγειρε καὶ ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ περιπάτει)?  Jesus seems to make an equivalence between the two optional sayings.

The second time the apostles were sleeping (Mt 26:43-26:43)

“Again,

Jesus came.

He found them

Sleeping.

Their eyes

Were heavy.”

 

καὶ ἐλθὼν πάλιν εὗρεν αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας, ἦσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ βεβαρημένοι.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:40, but there is an addition about the apostles being embarrassed and not able to say anything.  In Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 22, there is nothing more about these 2nd and 3rd visits of Jesus.  Matthew and Mark recount that Jesus again came (καὶ ἐλθὼν πάλιν) and found his 3 disciples sleeping (εὗρεν αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας), because their eyes were heavy or overburdened (ἦσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ βεβαρημένοι).  This was the 2nd time that he found his 3 trusted disciples sleeping.  There were no excuses, except that they were tired.  They had failed to stay awake and be vigilant.

 

The eschatological implications (Mt 26:29-26:29)

“I say to you!

I will never again

Drink

Of this fruit of the vine

Until that day

When I drink

The new wine

With you

In my Father’s kingdom.’”

 

λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπ’ ἄρτι ἐκ τούτου τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης ὅταν αὐτὸ πίνω μεθ’ ὑμῶν καινὸν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Πατρός μου.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:25, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:18.  In a solemn declaration (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν) Jesus said that he would never again drink of this fruit of the vine (οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπ’ ἄρτι ἐκ τούτου τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου) until that day (ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας) when he would drink of the new wine with them (ἐκείνης ὅταν αὐτὸ πίνω μεθ’ ὑμῶν καινὸν) in his Father’s kingdom (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Πατρός μου).  Jesus was talking about the end times.  He was about to leave them until the end of the world, the eschaton.  Then they would all be reunited in his Father’s kingdom.