Heal the daughter of Abraham (Lk 13:16-13:16)

“Ought not this woman,

A daughter of Abraham,

Whom Satan bound

For eighteen years,

Be set free

From this bondage

On the Sabbath day?”

 

ταύτην δὲ θυγατέρα Ἀβραὰμ οὖσαν, ἣν ἔδησεν ὁ Σατανᾶς ἰδοὺ δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη, οὐκ ἔδει λυθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ τούτου τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου;

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that this daughter of Abraham (ταύτην δὲ θυγατέρα Ἀβραὰμ), whom Satan had bound up (οὖσαν, ἣν ἔδησεν ὁ Σατανᾶς ἰδοὺ) for 18 years (δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη), ought to be set free from this bondage (οὐκ ἔδει λυθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ τούτου) on the Sabbath day (τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου).  Jesus wondered why this daughter of Abraham, a Jewish woman, should not be freed from her 18-year long Satan bondage on the Sabbath.  In other words, her infirmity was explicitly due to her Satanic possession.  Do you know anyone who has suffered from the same disease for 18 years?

The attack (Lk 11:22-11:22)

“But when one

Stronger than he

Attacks him,

And overpowers him,

He takes away

His trusted armor.

He then divides

His plunder.”

 

ἐπὰν δὲ ἰσχυρότερος αὐτοῦ ἐπελθὼν νικήσῃ αὐτόν, τὴν πανοπλίαν αὐτοῦ αἴρει ἐφ’ ᾗ ἐπεποίθει, καὶ τὰ σκῦλα αὐτοῦ διαδίδωσιν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that someone stronger than the armed strongman protecting his castle attacked him (πὰν δὲ ἰσχυρότερος αὐτοῦ ἐπελθὼν).  This attacker overpowered this strong man (νικήσῃ αὐτόν).  He would take away his trusted armor (τὴν πανοπλίαν αὐτοῦ αἴρει ἐφ’ ᾗ ἐπεποίθει).  The new stronger one would then divide (διαδίδωσιν) and plunder (καὶ τὰ σκῦλα αὐτοῦ) this so-called original strong man.  There is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 3:27, and Matthew, chapter 12:29.  Mark had a reference to a strong man, probably Satan, who was overcome by another strong man, probably Jesus.  The strong man must be tied up before anyone could plunder his house.  Jesus, appeared to be giving advice on how to rob a house.  No one would go into the house of a strong man to plunder, seize, snatch, or rob his property or goods without first tying up the strong man.  Then one would indeed be able to plunder or totally rob his whole house.   Matthew has a vague reference to Satan, the strong man, who was overcome by another strong man.  Matthew seems to indicate that the strong man or Satan must be tied up, like in Mark, before anyone can plunder his house.  How could you get into a strong man’s house?  How could you rob his property?  First, you had to tie up the strong man, before you could plunder or rob his house.  Thus, Satan would have to be bound up before you could enter his house to rob him.  Luke was a little vague on how this plunder was all going to come about, but it would happen.  Has anybody ever tried to rob your house?

Your judges (Lk 11:19-11:19)

“If I cast out demons

By Beelzebul,

By whom do

Your exorcist sons

Cast them out?

Therefore,

Let them be

Your judges!”

 

εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν; διὰ τοῦτο αὐτοὶ ὑμῶν κριταὶ ἔσονται.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus turned the questions back on his inquisitors.  If Jesus was casting out demons by Beelzebul (εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια), how were their own exorcist sons able to cast out evil spirits (οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν)?  Let them be your judges (διὰ τοῦτο αὐτοὶ ὑμῶν κριταὶ ἔσονται).  Matthew, chapter 12:27 noted that if Satan was casting out Satan, then he was divided against himself.  If Jesus was casting out demons by Beelzebul, how were their own sons or other exorcists able to cast out demons?  Therefore, their own sons would be their judges.  Mark did not have this question and the argument about how their own sons or other exorcists were able to cast out demons.  What do you think about exorcism?

Nothing will hurt you (Lk 10:19-10:19

“See!

I have given you

Authority

To tread

On snakes

And scorpions.

I have given you

Authority

Over all the power

Of the enemy.

Nothing will

Hurt you.”

 

ἰδοὺ δέδωκα ὑμῖν τὴν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ πατεῖν ἐπάνω ὄφεων καὶ σκορπίων, καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ ἐχθροῦ, καὶ οὐδὲν ὑμᾶς οὐ μὴ ἀδικήσει.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that he had given these special 70 disciples (ἰδοὺ δέδωκα ὑμῖν) the authority (τὴν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ) to tread on (πατεῖν ἐπάνω) snakes (ὄφεων) and scorpions (καὶ σκορπίων).  They had the authority over all the power (καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν) of the enemy (τοῦ ἐχθροῦ).  Nothing would hurt them (καὶ οὐδὲν ὑμᾶς οὐ μὴ ἀδικήσει).  This is another unique saying of Jesus only found in Luke because he was the only one to mention these 70 special disciples and their return.  The enemy mentioned here was Satan.  This idea that nothing will hurt them can also be found at the end of the gospel of Mark, chapter 16:18, as well as Psalm 91:13, that they would dash the snakes.  This is the same psalm that was cited in the temptations of Jesus.  Do you know anyone who is not hurt by snakes or scorpions?

The seeds on the path do not believe (Lk 8:12-8:12)

“The seeds

On the path

Are those who have heard.

Then the devil comes,

He takes away

The word

From their hearts.

Thus,

They may not believe

And be saved.”

 

οἱ δὲ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν εἰσιν οἱ ἀκούσαντες, εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν, ἵνα μὴ πιστεύσαντες σωθῶσιν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the seeds on the path (οἱ δὲ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν) are like those people who have heard the word (εἰσιν οἱ ἀκούσαντες).  However, the devil comes (εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος), and takes away this word (καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον) from their hearts (ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν).  Thus, they do not believe (ἵνα μὴ πιστεύσαντες) and are not saved (σωθῶσιν).  This explanation about the seeds on the path can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels.  Matthew, chapter 13:19, Mark, chapter 4:15, and here.  Mark indicated that Jesus explained that the seeds on the path or the road were the people who heard the word, but immediately Satan, and not the devil, came in the form of the birds.  Satan or the birds took away the sown seeds or the words that had been sown in them, the holy words.  Thus, the birds were the evil Satan that came and devoured them, because they did not understand the words within them.  Matthew said that they did not understand what they heard, so that the birds or the evil one, not Satan or the devil, would come and seize or snatch away what had been sown in their hearts, the words of the kingdom.  Once again, the birds were the evil ones that came and devoured the seeds, because they did not understand the words of the kingdom.  All 3 synoptic gospels indicate that listening to the word was not enough.  There had to be good circumstances or pre-depositions to hearing and understanding for the word or the seed to be effective.  Have you let evil birds take away your belief in the word of God?

The forty day fast (Lk 4:2-4:2)

“For forty days,

Jesus was tempted

By the devil.

He ate nothing

At all

During those days.

When these days

Were over,

He was very hungry.”

 

ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. Καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, καὶ συντελεσθεισῶν αὐτῶν ἐπείνασεν.

 

This text is like Matthew, chapter 4:2, almost word for word, indicating a common source, perhaps Q.  Luke said that Jesus was tempted (πειραζόμενος) for 40 days (ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα) by the devil (ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου).  During this time or in those days (ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις), Jesus did not eat anything at all (Καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν), since he was fasting.  When the 40 days were over or completed (καὶ συντελεσθεισῶν αὐτῶν), Jesus was really hungry or famished (ἐπείνασεν).  There was a symbolism in this fast of 40 days.  Luke did not mention 40 nights, like Matthew.  Fasting was a common Hebrew exercise, while 40 was the same number of years that the Israelites were in the wilderness during the Exodus.  Jesus was really hungry at the end of his 40 day fast.  The devil, the personification of evil, tempted Jesus.  Mark, chapter 1:13, has an abbreviated description of the temptations of Jesus compared to Matthew, and Luke.  All 3 synoptics agreed that Jesus was in the wilderness 40 symbolic days.  All agreed that Jesus was tempted by Satan or the devil, the adversary or the accuser.  This concept of the adversary showed the Persian influence on the Israelites after the exile.  The older devil concept was considered a fallen angel without all the powers of God, but nevertheless very strong.  Mark said that Jesus was with the wild beasts, but this remark was not found in the other longer detailed descriptions of Matthew and Luke.  Mark made it seem like the temptation was physical, like the fear of wild animals, as he then said that the good angels ministered to Jesus, waiting on him and taking caring for him.

Judas Iscariot (Mk 14:10-14:10)

“Then Judas Iscariot,

Who was one of the twelve,

Went to the chief priests

In order to betray Jesus

To them.”

 

Καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰσκαριὼθ, ὁ εἷς τῶν δώδεκα, ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδοῖ αὐτοῖς.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:14, and somewhat similar in Luke, chapter 22:3-4, and in John, chapter 13:2, where Satan played a role.  Here in Mark, there is just the simple statement that Judas Iscariot (Καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰσκαριὼθ), one of the beloved 12 leaders or apostles (ὁ εἷς τῶν δώδεκα) went to the chief priests (ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς).  He wanted to betray or turn over Jesus to these high priests (ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδοῖ αὐτοῖς).  Apparently, according to John, chapter 12:6, Judas had been in charge of their common money, but he was stealing from this fund.  Thus, there may have been financial reasons or greed pushing Judas to betray Jesus.  John seems to be much more vehemently opposed to Judas.