Teaching from the boat (Lk 5:3-5:3)

“Jesus got into

One of the boats,

The one belonging

To Simon.

Jesus asked him

To put out

A little way

From the shore.

Then he sat down.

He taught

The crowds

From the boat.”

 

ἐμβὰς δὲ εἰς ἓν τῶν πλοίων, ὃ ἦν Σίμωνος, ἠρώτησεν αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἐπαναγαγεῖν ὀλίγον· καθίσας δὲ ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου ἐδίδασκεν τοὺς ὄχλους.

 

Luke said that Jesus got into one of the boats (ἐμβὰς δὲ εἰς ἓν τῶν πλοίων), that belonged to Simon (ὃ ἦν Σίμωνος).  Jesus asked him to put out his boat a little way from the shore line (ἠρώτησεν αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἐπαναγαγεῖν ὀλίγον).  Then he sat down (καθίσας) to teach the crowds (ἐδίδασκεν τοὺς ὄχλους) from this boat (δὲ ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου).  Now this part about teaching from the boat can be found in Matthew, chapter 13:1, and Mark, chapter 4:1.  Both Mark and Matthew indicated that Jesus began to teach beside the Sea of Galilee.  A great crowd had gathered around him, so that Jesus got into a boat.  He then sat there in the boat, teaching the whole crowd that was on the beach shore land near the sea.  Sitting was the normal way that teachers taught.  However, Matthew and Mark did not mention that this boat belonged to Simon as Luke did here.

The mountain near the Sea of Galilee (Mt 15:29-15:29)

“Jesus left that place.

He passed along

The Sea of Galilee.

He went up on the mountain,

Where he sat down.”

 

Καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἦλθεν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καὶ ἀναβὰς εἰς τὸ ὄρος ἐκάθητο ἐκεῖ.

 

Mark, chapter 7:31, has a more detailed explanation of his travel from Sidon back to the Decapolis region of the Sea of Galilee.  Here Jesus simply left there (Καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) and returned to the Sea of Galilee (ἦλθεν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας).  Then he went up a mountain and sat down (καὶ ἀναβὰς εἰς τὸ ὄρος ἐκάθητο ἐκεῖ), much like in chapter 14:23.  Was he going to pray here?

The fishing net and the kingdom of heaven (Mt 13:47-13:48)

“Again,

The kingdom of heaven is

Like a net

That was thrown

Into the sea.

It caught fish

Of every kind.

When it was full,

They pulled it ashore.

They sat down.

They put the good fish

Into baskets.

But they threw out

The bad fish.”

 

Πάλιν ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν σαγήνῃ βληθείσῃ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ ἐκ παντὸς γένους συναγαγούσῃ·

ἣν ὅτε ἐπληρώθη ἀναβιβάσαντες ἐπὶ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν καὶ καθίσαντες συνέλεξαν τὰ καλὰ εἰς ἄγγη, τὰ δὲ σαπρὰ ἔξω ἔβαλον.

 

Only Matthew has this parable about the fishing net.  Jesus, via Matthew, makes another comparison about the kingdom of heaven (Πάλιν ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν).  This time, it was like a fishing net that was thrown into the sea (σαγήνῃ βληθείσῃ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν).  They caught all kinds of different fish (καὶ ἐκ παντὸς γένους συναγαγούσῃ).  When this fishing net was full, they pulled it ashore (ἣν ὅτε ἐπληρώθη ἀναβιβάσαντες ἐπὶ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν).  Then they sat down (καὶ καθίσαντες) to sort out the fish.  They collected the good fish into basket containers (συνέλεξαν τὰ καλὰ εἰς ἄγγη), but they threw out the bad fish (τὰ δὲ σαπρὰ ἔξω ἔβαλον).  The details of this fishing expedition, like the sowing in the field speak to an agricultural and fishing community.

The sermon on the mount (Mt 5:1-5:2)

“Jesus saw the crowds.

He went up the mountain.

After he sat down,

His disciples came to him.

He began to speak.

He taught them.”

 

δὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος· καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ

καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων

 

This Sermon on the Mount contains the main themes of Jesus’ teaching.  There is an equivalent in Luke, chapter 6:20-26, but there is nothing like this in Mark or John.  This sermon is one of the great examples of the common Q source.  How did Luke and Matthew use this source differently?  Matthew has 8 blessings, but Luke has 4 blessings and 4 curses.  Matthew continued with his theme about large crowds.  Jesus saw that he had a large crowd (δὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους).  What exactly is a large crowd?  Jesus went up to a mountain (ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος), probably some rolling hill near Capernaum.  Matthew has another echo of Moses, as someone who escaped death as a child, left Egypt, went into the wilderness for 40 days, and now goes up the mountain.  In Luke, Jesus was on a level plain.  Right from the start, there are two different perspectives.  Jesus sat down (καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ), which was the common position of Jewish teaching rabbis.  Of course, his followers or disciples came to him (προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ).  Obviously, there were now more than the two sets of two brothers.  Jesus then opened his mouth (καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ) to teach them with his words (ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων).  If he was seated, in order to be heard, the crowd could not have been more than a couple of hundred people, if that, maybe even less than 100.

The elders visit Ezekiel (Ezek 20:1-20:1)

“In the seventh year,

In the fifth month,

On the tenth day

Of the month,

Certain elders

Of Israel

Came to consult

Yahweh.

They sat down

Before me.”

Once again, with a very specific date mentioned, the 7th year of the rule of King Zedekiah, in the 5th month, the 10th day of the month, certain elders came to Ezekiel to talk to him about Yahweh. This would make it August, 591 BCE. They came and sat down in front of Ezekiel, who continued to use the first person singular.