Luke said that Jesus spoke to his disciples (εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς), but within the hearing of all the people (Ἀκούοντος δὲ παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ. Matthew, chapter 23:1, indicated that Jesus was speaking (Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν) to the crowds (τοῖς ὄχλοις) and his disciples (καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ) at the same time. Mark, chapter 12:37, simply had the comment that a large crowd was listening to Jesus with delight (Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως). In other words, Jesus was speaking to his disciples, but openly enough that the crowds around him could hear it. Have you ever been someplace where you could hear what people were speaking about?
Luke said that they were going to name him (καὶ ἐκάλουν αὐτὸ) Zechariah (Ζαχαρίαν), after the name of his father (ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ). The naming of the child was not associated with the circumcision until later. Christians often call the baptizing of their infants Christening when they give a Christian name to the child, after infant baptism became popular in the early Middle Ages. Interesting enough, the Hispanic or Sephardic Jews name their children after their parents, while the Ashkenazic or Eastern European Jews name their children after dead relatives or grandparents. However, today, naming a Jewish boy and circumcision take place at the same time. For girls, it had become usual to name the girl at a Torah reading on the Sabbath.
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:21, and in Luke, chapter 20:25, almost word for word. Mark said that Jesus responded to them (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι). At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ). Jesus appeared to accept the Roman rule and its taxing policies, as he also had a milder view of their tax collectors. With this ambiguous answer, Jesus avoided offending Jewish nationalists and the Roman Empire party and its officials. Thus, the Roman and Jewish parties were both satisfied and unsatisfied at the same time. If everything belonged to God, do not pay this tax. If everything belonged to the Roman empire, pay the tax. The choice was theirs. He was not going to tell them what to do. This statement of Jesus has become the basic Christian understanding of the relationships between religious church organizations and state civic organizations.
There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:15-17, and in Luke, chapter 20:24-25. Jesus wanted to see the coin that was used for paying the poll tax (ἐπιδείξατέ μοι τὸ νόμισμα τοῦ κήνσου). They brought or presented him with a small silver Roman coin, a denarius (οἱ δὲ προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δηνάριον). He then asked them (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) whose image and whose inscription title (Τίνος ἡ εἰκὼν αὕτη καὶ ἡ ἐπιγραφή) were on this coin? They answered (λέγουσιν) that the image and inscription belonged to Caesar (Καίσαρος). Then Jesus responded to them (τότε λέγει αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι). At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ). With this ambiguous answer, Jesus avoided offending Jewish nationalists and the Roman Empire party and its officials. Thus, the Roman and Jewish parties were both satisfied and unsatisfied at the same time. If everything belonged to God, do not pay this tax. If everything belonged to the Roman empire, pay the tax. The choice was theirs. He was not going to tell them what to do. This statement of Jesus has become the basic Christian understanding of the relationships of church and state.
This appearance of Moses and Elijah can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 9:4, Luke, chapter 9:30, and here in Matthew, but there are minor differences in all 3 accounts. Suddenly (καὶ ἰδοὺ), there appeared to the 3 disciples (ὤφθη αὐτοῖς) Moses (Μωϋσῆς) and Elijah (καὶ Ἡλείας), who were talking with Jesus (συνλαλοῦντες μετ’ αὐτοῦ). How did they know what Moses and Elijah looked like? They had never seen them before. They were nearly 1,000 years removed from their existence. Jesus, however, recognized and talked with them, so that is why they might have realized who they were. Thus, Jesus was the fulfillment of the Law of Moses and at the same time the fulfillment of the prophets with Elijah, one of the earliest prophets from the 9th century BCE.
Written languages are nothing more than symbols on a page to confer some thoughts or ideas. Oral language, written numbers, and written symbols existed before written languages. Most of the world’s ancient languages began to take shape about 3,000-1,500 BCE, about 5,000 years ago. The Semitic languages developed in Egypt from about 1,800 to 1,300 BCE. Thus, the Hebrew of the Bible would have been practically the only written sources. The Greek language also stems from about the same time around 1,500 BCE.
As usual, Jeremiah had done what Yahweh wanted him to do. He repeated all the words that Yahweh had told him to say to King Zedekiah. At the same time, that the Babylonian army was attacking Jerusalem, they were also fighting against the only two other remaining fortified cities in Judah, Lachish, about 23 miles southwest of Jerusalem, and Azekah, about 11 miles north of Lachish. Everything else had already been conquered by the Babylonians except for these two cities and Jerusalem.
If you are a stranger in someone else’s house, you will have to play the part of a host and bartender without being thanked. People will speak rude words about you, since you are the stranger. This is somewhat reminiscent of Albert Camus and his 1942 work about the “Stranger.” You will be accepted for what you do, but at the same time you will not be really truly accepted for who you are. You will not fully fit in. You, the stranger, will be asked to be a waiter, almost like a servant. You will be moved around, depending on who is coming to the house. You many actually lose your room because a relative might come for a visit. These are some of the difficulties for the lodger staying in a strange house. You will be scolded about your renting as well as receive the criticism of the moneylenders.