Jesse (Lk 3:32-3:32)

“The son of Jesse,

The son of Obed,

The son of Boaz,

The son of Sala,

The son of Nahshon.”

 

τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ τοῦ Ἰωβὴδ τοῦ Βοὸς τοῦ Σαλὰ τοῦ Ναασσὼν

 

This is pretty much the same as Matthew, chapter 1:5-6, as the genealogies almost match here.  Luke said that David was the son of Jesse (τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ), the son of Obed (τοῦ Ἰωβὴδ), the son of Boaz (τοῦ Βοὸς), the son of Sala (τοῦ Σαλὰ), and the son of Nahshon (τοῦ Ναασσὼν).  The genealogy at the end of Ruth, chapter 4:18-22, goes from Judah to David.  Nahshon was a famous warrior prince of Judah, especially in Numbers, chapter 7:12.  Nahshon was the father of Salma or Salmon (Σαλμών), the direct male ancestor of King David, and all of the kings of the Kingdom of Judah.  Sala or Salmon was the father of Boaz with Rahab his wife.  Boaz was the father of Obed with Ruth his wife.  Obed was the father of Jesse.  Jesse had 7 sons with King David the youngest son.  Ruth was a Moabite non-Jewish widow.  She traveled to Israel with her Jewish mother-in-law Naomi.  There she then married Boaz in a beautiful love story in the biblical book of Ruth.

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The descendants of Perez (Mt 1:3-1:4)

“Perez was

The father of Hezron.

Hezron was

The father of Aram.

Aram was

The father of Aminadab.

Aminadab was

The father of Nahshon,

Nahshon was

The father of Salmon,”

 

Φαρὲς δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἐσρώμ, Ἐσρὼμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀράμ,  Ἀρὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀμιναδάβ, Ἀμιναδὰβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ναασσών, Ναασσὼν δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σαλμών,

 

The genealogical lineage of Judah went through Perez (Φαρὲς), not Zerah.  According to Genesis, chapter 46, Perez had 2 sons, Hezron (Ἐσρώμ) and Hamul. who went with Jacob to Egypt.  From 1 Chronicles, chapter 2, we learn about the linage of Hezron.  He had 3 sons, Jerahmeel, Aram (Ἀράμ), and Chelubai.  This Aram became the father of Aminadab (Ἀμιναδάβ).  Aminadab had a daughter, Elisheba, who married Aaron, the brother of Moses, in Exodus, chapter 6.  Aminadab was the father of Nahshon (Ναασσών), a famous warrior prince of Judah, especially in Numbers, chapter 7.  Nahshon became the father of Salma or Salmon (Σαλμών).  The Greek text used the term ‘begat’ (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between these 5 men.  However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call them the father instead of saying “fathered them.”

The descendants of Hur (1 Chr 2:51-2:55)

“The sons of Hur the first-born of Ephrathah were Shobal father of Kiriath-jearim, Salma father of Bethlehem, and Hareph father of Beth-gader. Shobal father of Kiriath-jearim had other sons, Haroch, half of the Menuhoth. The families of Kiriath-jearim were the Ithrites, the Puthites, the Shumathites, and the Mishraites. From these came the Zorathites and the Eshtaolites. The sons of Salma were Bethlehem, the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab, and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites. The families were also of the scribes that lived at Jabez, the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and the Sucathites. These are the Kenites who came from Hammath, father of the house of Rechab.”

Hur was the grandson of Hezron, via Caleb and Ephrath. Thus his family will become known as the Ephrathites, the area around Bethlehem, since this genealogy is an attempt to find the ancestors of Bethlehem. (1) Hur’s son mentioned earlier was Uri with his grandson the famous ark artisan Bezalel. Here the emphasis is on (2) Shobal, who seems to be the founder or father of Kiriath-jearim which is mentioned over 17 times in the biblical literature. This town was a famous Israelite sanctuary or high place, somewhere around the border of Judah and Benjamin. There also was a Horite named Shobal. Shobal had other sons, but there is mention of (3) Haroch or Haroeh, which is half of Menuhoth. This is the only time that these names appear in the biblical literature. There are 6 families or clans that come out of Kiriath-jearim with this the only mention of the Ithrites, the Puthites, the Mishraites, the Shumathites, the Zorathites, and the Eshtaolites. The brother of Shobal was Salma, who is considered to be the father or founder of Bethlehem. This is the only mention of Salma, but Bethlehem becomes an important biblical place since it is mentioned nearly 50 times in the biblical literature because of David and Jesus much later. The original name of this ancient town may have been Ephrath. Another 6 groups or clans come from Bethlehem. Netophathites is mentioned twice besides here as a village around Bethlehem. This is the only mention of Atroth-beth-joab, the Zorites, the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and the Sucathites. The half of Manahathites mentioned here may be the other half of the group from his brother Shobal. Jabez is both a place and a person. This is the only mention of the 3rd son Hareph and the town of Beth-gader, which might be near or the same as the town of Geder in Joshua, chapter 12, but no groups come from there or him. The Kenites appear 8 times in the biblical literature as a group around the Dead Sea area. Moses’ father-in-law and his wife were Kenites. Hammath was a northern city that only appears twice. However, Rechab appears over 13 times as a group called the Rechabites who like the Kenites were friendly to the Israelites. The most prominent Rechabite may have been Jehonadab in 2 Kings, chapter 10, where he joined with King Jehu in helping wipe out the family of King Ahab.

Ancestors of King David (1Chr 2:10-2:17)

“Ram became the father of Amminadab. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon, prince of the sons of Judah. Nahshon became the father of Salma. Salma became the father of Boaz. Boaz became the father of Obed. Obed became the father of Jesse. Jesse became the father of Eliab his first-born, Abinadab the second, Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, and David the seventh. Their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail. The sons of Zeruiah were Abishai, Joab, and Asahel, three. Abigail bore Amasa. The father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmaelite.”

This is how we get from Judah to David with the same genealogy that was at the end of Ruth, chapter 4, which will be picked up by the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 1. Perhaps these documents are contemporary since the genealogy at the end of Ruth seems to be an addition to the story. All this is heading, to King David, who was from the tribe of Judah. (1) Judah had a son (2) Perez who in turn had a son (3) Hezron. His son (4) Ram had a son named (5) Amminadab, whose daughter Elisheba married Aaron, the brother of Moses in Exodus, chapter 6. However, Amminadab’s son (6) Nahshon was a famous warrior prince of Judah, especially in Numbers, chapter 7. His son (7) Salma, or as he is called in Ruth, Salmon, was the father of (8) Boaz who married Ruth. He then had a son called (9) Obed. Obed’s son was (10) Jesse. Jesse had 7 sons and 2 daughters, Eliab, Abinadab, Shimea, Nethanel, Raddai, Ozem, Zeruiah, and Abigail, with the 7th son being (11) David. This biblical author also lists 4 children of the 2 daughters Abishai, Joab, Asahel, and Amasa, since they played an important role in the reign of King David.