The queen of the South (Lk 11:31-11:31)

“The queen of the South

Will rise

At the judgment

Against the people

Of this generation.

She will condemn them.

Because she came

From the ends of the earth

To listen to

The wisdom of Solomon.

See!

Someone greater

Than Solomon

Is here.”

 

βασίλισσα νότου ἐγερθήσεται ἐν τῇ κρίσει μετὰ τῶν ἀνδρῶν τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης καὶ κατακρινεῖ αὐτούς· ὅτι ἦλθεν ἐκ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς ἀκοῦσαι τὴν σοφίαν Σολομῶνος, καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Σολομῶνος ὧδε.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the queen of the South (βασίλισσα νότου) would rise (ἐγερθήσεται) at the judgment time (ἐν τῇ κρίσει) against the men or people of this generation.  She will condemn them (καὶ κατακρινεῖ αὐτούς), because she came from the ends of the earth (ὅτι ἦλθεν ἐκ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς) to listen to the wisdom of Solomon (ἀκοῦσαι τὴν σοφίαν Σολομῶνος).  However, someone greater than Solomon is here (καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Σολομῶνος ὧδε).  This saying about the Queen of Sheba can also be found in Matthew, chapter 12:42, so that perhaps this is a Q source.  However, in Luke here, it preceded the comments about the men of Nineveh, while it was the reverse in Matthew.  Why was this unnamed Queen of Sheba able to give a judgment on this generation?  She was not even Jewish.  However, she visited King Solomon in 1 Kings, chapter 10:1-13, with the same story repeated in 2 Chronicles, chapter 9:1-12.  This mythical mysterious woman came from Sheba, but no one knows exactly where that was or her specific name.  She might have been from around the gold mines at Ophir, wherever that might be.  This might explain her wealth in spices, gold, and precious stones.  Anyway, King Solomon answered all her questions with great wisdom.  She observed all his wisdom, plus his house, his food, his clothing, and his servants.  She praised King Solomon, the son of King David, because his wisdom exceeded what she had anticipated and his prosperity exceeded her expectations.  Matthew and Luke both called her the Queen of the South (βασίλισσα νότου).  Matthew also said that she would rise up at the judgment time against this generation and condemn them.  She had come from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon.  Now, Matthew reminded them that someone greater than King Solomon was there among them, Jesus himself.  Do you recognize greatness when you see it?

The Father and the Son (Lk 10:22-10:22)

“All things

Have been handed over

To me,

By my Father.

No one knows

Who the Son is

Except the Father.

No one knows

Who the Father is

Except the Son,

And anyone

To whom

The Son chooses

To reveal him.”

 

πάντα μοι παρεδόθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός μου, καὶ οὐδεὶς γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατήρ, καὶ τίς ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ εἰ μὴ ὁ Υἱὸς καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν βούληται ὁ Υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψαι

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that all things had been handed over to him (πάντα μοι παρεδόθη… μου) by his Father (ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός).  No one knows who the Son is (καὶ οὐδεὶς γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς), except the Father (εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατήρ).  The reverse is also true.  No one knows who the Father is (καὶ τίς ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ) except the Son (εἰ μὴ ὁ Υἱὸς), and anyone whom the Son chooses to reveal him (καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν βούληται ὁ Υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψαι).  Matthew, chapter 11:27, also had Jesus explain his relationship to the Father in heaven, indicating a possible common Q source.  This is one of the few times that these synoptic gospel writers presented Jesus with a clear knowledge of his relationship to the heavenly Father, as the Son.  The Father was well pleased to let this be known and happen because it was his will to do so.  The Father has handed over everything to his Son.  This is a profound theological statement about the divine affiliation of Jesus as the Son of the Father.  Only he and the Father know this.  No one really knows the Son, except the Father.  The opposite is also true.  No one really knows the Father, except the Son.   However, Jesus, the Son, may decide or choose to tell or reveal this to others.  This is the gist of the gospel stories.  Jesus wanted to reveal his relationship to the Father to all his followers.   Do you understand the relationship of Jesus to the Father?

Woe to the false prophets! (Lk 6:26-6:26)

“Woe to you

When all speak

Well of you!

That is what

Your ancestors did

To the false prophets.”

 

οὐαὶ ὅταν καλῶς ὑμᾶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι· κατὰ αὐτὰ γὰρ ἐποίουν τοῖς ψευδοπροφήταις οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said they would be cursed (οὐαὶ), using the second person plural.  If people spoke well of them (ὅταν καλῶς ὑμᾶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι), that is what (κατὰ αὐτὰ) their ancestors or fathers (οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν) did (γὰρ ἐποίουν) to the false or pseudo-prophets (τοῖς ψευδοπροφήταις).  This is the reverse of verses 22-23, where Jesus said that they would be blessed, happy, and fortunate (μακάριοί ἐστε), when people hated them (ὅταν μισήσωσιν ὑμᾶς οἱ ἄνθρωποι) or excluded them (καὶ ὅταν ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς) on account of the Son of Man (ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου).  They would be blessed (μακάριοί ἐστε), when people insulted them (καὶ ὀνειδίσωσιν) or defamed them.  There is something equivalent to Matthew, chapter 5:11.  This persecution is precisely what (κατὰ αὐτὰ) their ancestors (οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν) had done to the ancient prophets (γὰρ ἐποίουν τοῖς προφήταις).  In a certain sense, they were a continuation of the Old Testament persecuted prophets who had gone before them.  However, if people spoke well of them and treated them nice, perhaps they were the false prophets.

Woe to the laughers! (Lk 6:25-6:25)

“Woe to you

Who are laughing now!

You will mourn

And weep.”

 

οὐαί, οἱ γελῶντες νῦν, ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that the laughing ones now (οἱ γελῶντες νῦν) would be cursed (οὐαί), using the second person plural.  They would mourn and weep (ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε) in the future.  Once again, this unique saying of Luke is the reverse of one of his beatitudes in verse 21, where he indicated that Jesus said that those who were weeping now (οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν) would be blessed, happy or fortunate (μακάριοι) because they would later laugh (ὅτι γελάσετ), using the second person plural.  There is no equivalent to this in Matthew, except for the mourners in chapter 5:4.  Luke has Jesus say the opposite thing about those laughing now, as they would weep later.

Woe to those who are full now (Lk 6:25-6:25)

“Woe to you

Who are full now!

You will be hungry.”

 

οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι νῦν, ὅτι πεινάσετε.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that they would be cursed (οὐαὶ ὑμῖν) if they were full now (οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι νῦν), using the second person plural.  However, in the future they would be hungry (ὅτι πεινάσετε).  This is the reverse of verse 21, where Luke indicated that Jesus said that the hungry people now (οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν) would be blessed or happy (μακάριοι) and satisfied (ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε), also using the second person plural.  Here Luke was talking about real hunger for food that would be satisfied.  Those who were not hungry now would be hungry in the future.

The hungry are filled (Lk 1:53-1:53)

“God

Has filled

The hungry

With good things.

He has sent

The rich away

Empty.”

 

πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν καὶ πλουτοῦντας ἐξαπέστειλεν κενούς.

 

This canticle of Mary was modeled on that of Hannah in 1 Samuel, chapter 2:4, that praised Yahweh for her son the prophet Samuel.  Luke had Mary elaborate on Hannah’s thought about how the mighty and the rich would stumble, but the low and the poor would succeed.  Mary said that God had filled or satisfied the needy hungry people with good things (πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν), while at the same time he had sent away (ἐξαπέστειλεν) the rich people (καὶ πλουτοῦντας) empty handed (κενούς.).  God was going to reverse the human order of rich and poor as far as food was concerned.  The rich would have nothing, but the poor would be satisfied.

What to take on their mission (Mk 6:8-6:9)

“Jesus ordered them

To take nothing

For their journey,

Except a staff.

There would be

No bread,

No bag,

No money in their belts.

But they were

To wear sandals,

But not put on

Two tunics.”

 

καὶ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδὲν αἴρωσιν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰ μὴ ῥάβδον μόνον, μὴ ἄρτον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ εἰς τὴν ζώνην χαλκόν,

ἀλλὰ ὑποδεδεμένους σανδάλια, καὶ μὴ ἐνδύσησθε δύο χιτῶνας.

 

Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:9-10, and Luke, chapter 9:3, who is closer to Mark.  Thus, Mark indicated that Jesus told them what they could not bring with them on their mission.  Jesus instructed them that they should bring nothing for their journey (καὶ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδὲν αἴρωσιν εἰς ὁδὸν).  They could only bring a staff or walking stick (εἰ μὴ ῥάβδον μόνον).  They could not bring any bread (μὴ ἄρτον), a bag or sack (μὴ πήραν), or money in their belts (μὴ εἰς τὴν ζώνην χαλκόν).  This was similar to what Matthew had said about not bringing any gold, silver, or copper in their money belts, since they did not need money.  Matthew had said that they should not bring a staff or sandals, but bring food.  Mark was the reverse here, since he said that they should wear sandals (ἀλλὰ ὑποδεδεμένους σανδάλια) and have a walking stick without any food or bread.  However, they both agreed that they did not need two tunics (καὶ μὴ ἐνδύσησθε δύο χιτῶνας), since one would be enough.  This was a very strong demand on these missionaries of Jesus.