Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said to the Sadducees (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) that those who belong to this age, the sons of this age (Οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου), marry (γαμοῦσιν) and are given in marriage (καὶ γαμίσκονται). Both Matthew, chapter 22:29, and Mark, chapter 12:24, are almost word for word, with Jesus flat out telling the Sadducees that they were wrong, without mentioning the present age. However, this reprimand by Jesus is not here in Luke. Matthew indicated that Jesus answered the Sadducees (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or lead astray (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Πλανᾶσθε). They did not know the scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς). They also did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ). Mark said that Jesus responded to the Sadducees (ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or led astray (Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε). They did not know the scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς). They also did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ). Simply put, they were ill-informed or stupid. Luke did not use this kind of language. Do you think that some people are stupid?
Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) to give back to the Emperor Caesar (Τοίνυν ἀπόδοτε τὰ Καίσαρος), the things that are of the Emperor Caesar’s (Καίσαρι)! However, give to God the things that are God’s (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:21, and in Mark, chapter 12:17, almost word for word. Mark said that Jesus responded to them (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι). At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ). Matthew said that Jesus responded to them (τότε λέγει αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι). At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ). Jesus appeared to accept the Roman rule and its taxing policies. He also had a milder view of their tax collectors. With this ambiguous answer, Jesus avoided offending Jewish nationalists and the Roman Empire party and its officials. Thus, the Roman and Jewish parties were both satisfied and unsatisfied at the same time. If everything belonged to God, do not pay this tax. If everything belonged to the Roman Empire, pay the tax. The choice was theirs. He was not going to tell them what to do. This statement of Jesus has become the basic Christian understanding of the relationship between religious churches and civilian states. Do you see a difference between Church regulations and civic state regulations?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the vineyard owner would come (ἐλεύσεται) and destroy these farmer tenants (καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργοὺς τούτους). He would give this vineyard to others (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις). When they heard this (ἀκούσαντες), they said (δὲ εἶπαν) “May it never happen (Μὴ γένοιτο)!” The end of this parable of the wicked vineyard tenants can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:40-41, and Mark, chapter 12:9. Mark indicated that Jesus continued with his story by asking a question. What will the lord or the owner of that vineyard do (τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)? Jesus responded to his own question that this landowner would come and destroy these evil tenants (ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργούς). Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις). Matthew also had Jesus continue with his story by asking a question. When the lord or the owner of that vineyard came to his vineyard (ὅταν οὖν ἔλθῃ ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), what would he do to those wicked tenants (τί ποιήσει τοῖς γεωργοῖς ἐκείνοις)? The apostles, and not Jesus himself, responded to Jesus (λέγουσιν αὐτῷ) by saying that this landowner would put those evil wretches to a miserable death (Κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτούς). Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἐκδώσεται ἄλλοις γεωργοῖς), who would give him the produce at the harvest time (οἵτινες ἀποδώσουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς καρποὺς ἐν τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν). This land owner was still looking for good tenants or renters. In Mark and Matthew, there was nothing about people saying “May it never happen!” Would you be a good tenant farmer?
Luke indicated that Jesus responded with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν). All those who already have things (τι παντὶ τῷ ἔχοντι), more will be given to them (δοθήσεται). From those who have nothing (ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ μὴ ἔχοντος), even what they do have (καὶ ὃ ἔχει) will be taken away (ἀρθήσεται). There was no insistence on equality here. This was similar to Matthew, chapter 25:29, perhaps indicating a Q source. Jesus said that this master slave owner rewarded and punished his slaves. He told them that all those who have, will be given more (τῷ γὰρ ἔχοντι παντὶ δοθήσεται), so that they will have an abundance or overflow of goods (καὶ περισσευθήσεται). But those who have nothing (τοῦ δὲ μὴ ἔχοντος), even what little they have will be taken away from them (καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ). Matthew added more comments that are not in Luke. As for this worthless slave (καὶ τὸν ἀχρεῖον δοῦλον), he was to be thrown into the outer darkness (ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping and gnashing of teeth (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), the common terms for sadness and mourning. Thus, the kingdom of heaven will have rewards and punishments. Do you want to be rewarded or punished in eternal life?
Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that the nobleman said to this slave (λέγει αὐτῷ) that he was going to judge him (κρίνω σε) by his own words, what came out of his own mouth (Ἐκ τοῦ στόματός σου). The nobleman called him a wicked slave (πονηρὲ δοῦλε) because he knew (ᾔδεις) that this nobleman was an austere harsh rigid man (ὅτι ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπος αὐστηρός εἰμι). This nobleman repeated what was just said in verse 21, that he took what he did not deposit (αἴρων ὃ οὐκ ἔθηκα) and he reaped what he did not sow (καὶ θερίζων ὃ οὐκ ἔσπειρα). This was similar to Matthew, chapter 25:26, perhaps indicating a Q source. Jesus said, via Matthew, that this master was not happy with his slave who hid his talent money. This lord or master responded to this slave (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτῷ). He called him a wicked lazy slave (Πονηρὲ δοῦλε καὶ ὀκνηρέ). He knew that this master was a hard man, since he reaped where he had not sown (ᾔδεις ὅτι θερίζω ὅπου οὐκ ἔσπειρα) and he gathered where he had not scattered (καὶ συνάγω ὅθεν οὐ διεσκόρπισα), repeating the slave’s own words. Notice that Luke did not call this slave lazy, just wicked or evil, while Matthew did. Are you a demanding person?
This parable story about the poor man Lazarus and an unnamed rich man is only found in Luke, not in the other gospels. Luke indicated that Jesus said the rich man responded to Abraham (εἶπεν δέ), calling him father (πάτερ). He begged Abraham (Ἐρωτῶ σε οὖν) to send Lazarus (ἵνα πέμψῃς αὐτὸν) to his father’s house (εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου). This rich man said that he had five brothers (ἔχω γὰρ πέντε ἀδελφούς). He wanted Lazarus to warn them (ὅπως διαμαρτύρηται αὐτοῖς). Thus, they might not also come into this toremented place (ἵνα μὴ καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔλθωσιν εἰς τὸν τόπον τοῦτον τῆς βασάνου). The rich man wanted Abraham to send Lazarus back to his family home to warn his 5 brothers, since he could not himself warn them. This was an act of kindness on his part to care about his 5 brothers. Would Lazarus be able to do this? Would you want to warn your family members if you were in hell?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus responded to these Pharisees (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς). Jesus told them to go tell that fox Herod (Πορευθέντες εἴπατε τῇ ἀλώπεκι ταύτῃ) that he, Jesus, was casting out demons (Ἰδοὺ ἐκβάλλω δαιμόνια) and performing cures (καὶ ἰάσεις ἀποτελῶ). He was doing this today (σήμερον), tomorrow (καὶ αὔριον), and on the 3rd day (καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ) until he finished his work (τελειοῦμαι). Earlier in Luke, there were comments about John the Baptist and Herod. Here, however, there is nothing about John the Baptist at all. This little unique saying in Luke had Jesus refer to Herod as a fox, either indicating that he was shrewd or trying to insult him. There was also an allusion to the 3rd day or the day of the Lord’s resurrection. Jesus had not yet finished his work in Galilee or Perea. Has anyone ever called you a fox?
This appears to be a unique saying of Luke. He said that one of the lawyers (δέ τις τῶν νομικῶν), who might have been at this dinner party, responded to Jesus (Ἀποκριθεὶς…λέγει αὐτῷ). He respectfully called him “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε)”. However, he said that some of these things that Jesus was saying was an insult to the lawyers also (ταῦτα λέγων καὶ ἡμᾶς ὑβρίζεις), since they followed the law. Apparently, one of the lawyers felt that Jesus was offending them also along with the Pharisees. These may have been Mosaic law lawyers, friends of the Pharisees. Have you ever insulted a lawyer?
Luke continued with this unique incident. Luke indicated that Jesus responded to this woman who had shouted out from the crowd. He said (αὐτὸς δὲ εἶπεν) that blessed rather (Μενοῦν μακάριοι) are those who hear (οἱ ἀκούοντες) the word of God (τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ) and obey it (καὶ φυλάσσοντες). Thus, the really happy, fortunate, or blessed ones (μακάριοι) are not his mother, but rather those who hear and keep or observe the word of God. Jesus seemed to point out that his true followers were happier or more blessed than his mother. Listening and following the word of God was more important than anything else. Spiritual ties were more important than biological ties. Who do you think are the blessed ones?
Luke indicated that Jesus knew what they were thinking (αὐτὸς δὲ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὰ διανοήματα). He said to them (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that every kingdom (Πᾶσα βασιλεία) divided against itself (ἐφ’ ἑαυτὴν διαμερισθεῖσα) becomes desolate (ἐρημοῦται). One house falls against another house (καὶ οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει). There were similar statements in Mark, chapter 3:24-25, and Matthew, chapter 12:25. Mark indicated that Jesus responded to the Scribes with his house divided remarks. Jesus said to them that if a kingdom was divided against itself, that kingdom would not be able to stand. If a house was divided against itself that house would not be able to endure. This was one of President Abraham Lincoln’s (1809-1865) favorite biblical passages about slavery. Matthew said that Jesus knew what the inner thoughts of the Pharisees were, so that he said to them that every kingdom divided against itself would be destroyed. No city or house divided against itself could endure for a long time. This was a very strong argument against Jesus and Beelzebul working together. What do you think the relationship of Jesus to the devil is?