The older brother was angry (Lk 15:28-15:28)

“Then the older brother

Became angry.

He refused

To go in.

His father came out.

He began

To plead with him.”

 

ὠργίσθη δὲ καὶ οὐκ ἤθελεν εἰσελθεῖν· ὁ δὲ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ ἐξελθὼν παρεκάλει αὐτόν.

 

This long parable story about the 2 sons can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that the older brother became angry (ὠργίσθη).  He refused to go in to the celebration (δὲ καὶ οὐκ ἤθελεν εἰσελθεῖν).  His father came out of the celebration (ὁ δὲ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ ἐξελθὼν).  He began to plead with him (παρεκάλει αὐτόν).  Now the conflict begins.  This seemed like such a nice happy story about a sinner who repented and was taken back by his father.  But now there was the other son who really did not want to go along with this plan.  He had been a hard-working farmer, while his brother went away carousing and wasting money.  Do you feel closer to the hard-working brother or the loose living brother?

The people of Nineveh (Lk 11:32-11:32)

“The people of Nineveh

Will rise up

At the judgment

Against this generation.

They will condemn it.

Because they repented

At the preaching

Of Jonah.

See!

Someone greater

Than Jonah

Is here.”

 

ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται ἀναστήσονται ἐν τῇ κρίσει μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτήν· ὅτι μετενόησαν εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ, καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε.

 

Luke also indicated that Jesus said that the people or men of Nineveh would rise up (ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται ἀναστήσονται) at the judgment time (ἐν τῇ κρίσει) against this generation (μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης).  They will condemn them (καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτήν) because they had repented or had a change of heart (ὅτι μετενόησαν) because of the preaching of Jonah (εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ).  However, someone greater than Jonah is here (καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε).  This saying about the positive response of repentance among the men of Nineveh, where the prophet Jonah had preached, can also be found in Matthew, chapter 12:41, so that perhaps this is a Q source.  Once again, these gospel writers and Jesus went back to the story of the prophet Jonah, chapter 3:5.  However, this story came first in Matthew, preceding the story about the Queen of the South.  He said that those people of Nineveh, who were long dead, would rise up at the judgment time against this generation.  They would condemn these contemporary people because they had repented during the 40-day preaching of Jonah in Nineveh.  Matthew then reminded them that someone greater than Jonah was there among them, Jesus himself.  Both these stories were about gentiles who praised Jewish leaders.  Do you repent after listening to the preaching of Jesus?

 

The curse on Chorazin and Bethsaida (Lk 10:13-10:13)

“Woe to you!

Chorazin!

Woe to you!

Bethsaida!

If the deeds

Of power

Done in you

Had been done

In Tyre

And Sidon,

They would have repented

Long ago,

Wearing sackcloth

And sitting in ashes.”

 

Οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν, οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά· ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ καθήμενοι μετενόησαν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that both Chorazin (Οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν) and Bethsaida (οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά) should be cursed.  Jesus said that if the deeds of power or the miracles done among them would have had been done (ὅτι εἰ…ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν) in Tyre (ἐν Τύρῳ) and Sidon (καὶ Σιδῶνι), they would have repented or had a change of heart (μετενόησαν) long ago (πάλαι), wearing sackcloth (ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ) and sitting in ashes (καὶ σποδῷ καθήμενοι).  This is similar to Matthew, chapter 11:20-21, indicating a possible common Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus denounced or reproached these various Galilean towns where he had worked his powerful miracles of healing and curing.  Jesus was upset that despite his many miracles, these towns had not repented of their evil ways.  Jesus complained about two particular towns, Chorazin (Χοραζείν), that was about 3 miles north of Capernaum, and Bethsaida (Βηθσαϊδάν), about 5 miles north of Capernaum on the northern tip of the Sea of Galilee.  All these towns were fairly close together.  Jesus’ reproach started with a typical prophetic curse of “woe to you” (Οὐαί σοι), especially used by Isaiah.  Jesus also mentioned the Phoenician Mediterranean cities of Tyre and Sidon that Isaiah, chapter 23:1-12, and many of the other prophets had wailed against.  Jesus said that if these same miraculous deeds had taken place in these two coastal cities, they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes, something that Chorazin and Bethsaida had not done.  What kind of town do you live in?

Judas repents (Mt 27:3-27:4)

“When Judas,

His betrayer,

Saw that Jesus

Was condemned,

He repented.

He brought back

The thirty pieces

Of silver

To the chief priests

And the elders.

Judas said.

‘I have sinned

By betraying

Innocent blood.’

They said.

‘What is that to us?

See to it yourself!’”

 

Τότε ἰδὼν Ἰούδας ὁ παραδοὺς αὐτὸν ὅτι κατεκρίθη, μεταμεληθεὶς ἔστρεψεν τὰ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ πρεσβυτέροις

λέγων Ἥμαρτον παραδοὺς αἷμα ἀθῷον. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Τί πρὸς ἡμᾶς; σὺ ὄψῃ.

 

This is unique to Matthew, who went back to the story about Judas Iscariot.  When Judas, Jesus’ betrayer (Τότε ἰδὼν Ἰούδας ὁ παραδοὺς αὐτὸν), saw that Jesus had been condemned (ὅτι κατεκρίθη) by this semi-official gathering of the Jewish religious leaders, he regretted or repented (μεταμεληθεὶς).  He brought back or returned the 30 pieces of silver (ἔστρεψεν τὰ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια) to these Jerusalem chief priests and elders (τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ πρεσβυτέροις).  Judas said to them that he had sinned (λέγων Ἥμαρτον) by betraying an innocent person or innocent blood (παραδοὺς αἷμα ἀθῷον).  However, these chief priests and elders said that it had nothing to do with them (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Τί πρὸς ἡμᾶς).  It was up to him to do whatever he wanted to do (σὺ ὄψῃ).  This was a fair transaction.  They got Jesus and Judas got the money.  What else was there to do?

Which son did the will of his father? (Mt 21:31-21:31)

“‘Which of the two

Did the will of his father?’

They said.

‘The first.’

Jesus said to them.

‘Truly!

I say to you!

The tax collectors

And the prostitutes

Are going into

The kingdom of God

Before you.’”

 

τίς ἐκ τῶν δύο ἐποίησεν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός; λέγουσιν Ὁ ὕστερος. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οἱ τελῶναι καὶ αἱ πόρναι προάγουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ.

 

This parable explanation is unique to Matthew.  Jesus entered into a dialogue with the chief priests and elders to explain his parable story, which would have been unusual since he normally explained the parable to his disciples.  In this parable story, Jesus asked which of the two sons did the will of his father (τίς ἐκ τῶν δύο ἐποίησεν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός)?  They, probably the chief priests and elders, responded that the first son had done the will of his father, even though he said no at first (λέγουσιν Ὁ ὕστερος).  Then Jesus issued a solemn pronouncement (λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  He said that the tax collectors and the prostitutes were going into the kingdom of God before them (ὑμῖν ὅτι οἱ τελῶναι καὶ αἱ πόρναι προάγουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ).  Notice that Matthew has Jesus say the “Kingdom of God,” “τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ” and not the usual “Kingdom of heaven,” “βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.”  The first son or the tax collectors and prostitutes had repented or changed their minds since they were willing to work in the vineyard.  The second son or the chief priests and elders said they would work in the vineyard but were like hypocrites who did not follow the Law, even though they wanted others to do so.

 

The reaction of the men of Nineveh (Mt 12:41-12:41)

“The people of Nineveh

Will rise up

At the judgment

With this generation.

They will condemn it.

Because they repented

At the preaching of Jonah.

See!

Something greater

Than Jonah is here.”

 

ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται ἀναστήσονται ἐν τῇ κρίσει μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτήν· ὅτι μετενόησαν εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ, καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε.

 

This saying about the positive response of repentance among the men of Nineveh, where the prophet Jonah had preached, can also be found in Luke, chapter 11:32, so that perhaps this is a Q source.  Once again, Q and Matthew went back to their Old Testament roots, using the story of the prophet Jonah, chapter 3:5.  Those people of Nineveh, who were long dead, would rise up at the judgment time against this generation (ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται ἀναστήσονται ἐν τῇ κρίσει μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης).  They would condemn it (καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτήν) because they had repented during the 40-day preaching of Jonah (ὅτι μετενόησαν εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ) in Nineveh.  Now, Matthew reminded them that something or someone greater than Jonah was there among them (καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε), Jesus himself.

Against Capernaum (Mt 11:23-11:24)

“You!

Capernaum!

Will you be exalted

To heaven?

No!

You will be brought down

To Hades.

If the deeds of power

Done in you

Had been done in Sodom,

It would have remained

Until this day.

But I tell you!

On the day of judgment

That it shall be more tolerable

For the land of Sodom

Than for you.”

 

καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ; ἕως Ἅιδου καταβήσῃ· ὅτι εἰ ἐν Σοδόμοις ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν σοί, ἔμεινεν ἂν μέχρι τῆς σήμερον.

πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι γῇ Σοδόμων ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ σοί.

 

Then Matthew has Jesus take on his own new home town of Capernaum.  Luke, chapter 10:15, has a similar statement, word for word, indicating a possible common Q source.  However, the second verse is unique to Matthew.  Jesus, turned to his home town of Capernaum (καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ), as mentioned in chapter 4:13.  He questioned them.  Would they be exalted or raised up to heaven (μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ)?  No!  In fact, they would be cast down to the unseen world of Hades (ἕως Ἅιδου καταβήσῃ), the traditional Greek word for hell.  If the mighty miracles that were done in Capernaum were done in Sodom (ὅτι εἰ ἐν Σοδόμοις ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν σοί), Sodom might have remained until the present day (ἔμεινεν ἂν μέχρι τῆς σήμερον).  This refers to the story in Genesis, chapter 19:1-29.  Then Jesus gave a solemn pronouncement “I say to you” (πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) that on the day of judgment (ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ σοί) it would be more tolerable for the land of Sodom than for the people of Capernaum (ὅτι γῇ Σοδόμων ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται).  Thus, Jesus had warned these three towns within 10 miles of each other, because they had not repented despite his many miracles there.