Eternal reward (Lk 18:29-18:30)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Truly!

I say to you!

There is no one

Who has left house,

Or wife,

Or brothers,

Or parents,

Or children,

For the sake

Of the kingdom of God,

Who will not get back

Very much in this age,

And in the age

To come,

Eternal life.’”

 

ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδείς ἐστιν ὃς ἀφῆκεν οἰκίαν ἢ γυναῖκα ἢ ἀδελφοὺς ἢ γονεῖς ἢ τέκνα ἕνεκεν τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ,

ὃς οὐχὶ μὴ λάβῃ πολλαπλασίονα ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ καὶ ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ζωὴν αἰώνιον.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) with a solemn pronouncement (Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν), that everyone who has left their house (ὅτι οὐδείς ἐστιν ὃς ἀφῆκεν οἰκίαν), wife (ἢ γυναῖκα), brothers (ἢ ἀδελφοὺς), parents (ἢ γονεῖς), or children (ἢ τέκνα ἕνεκεν), for the sake of the kingdom of God (τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ) will get back very much more (ὃς οὐχὶ μὴ λάβῃ πολλαπλασίονα) in this age (ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ), and in the age to come (καὶ ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ), eternal life (ζωὴν αἰώνιον).  This is the only use of the Greek word πολλαπλασίονα, that means manifold or many times more.  This demanding but rewarding saying of Jesus can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:29-30, and Matthew, chapter 19:29, but slightly different, especially Matthew with the apostles sitting on the 12 thrones judging the 12 tribes.  Mark said that Jesus then issued a solemn proclamation to his disciples that anyone who has left house, brothers, sisters, mother, father, children, or land fields for the sake of the gospel good news, would receive a hundredfold now in this age, in houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and field lands.  However, in the age to come, they would have eternal life.  In Matthew, Jesus also issued a solemn proclamation to his disciples.  He told them, if they had followed him, that at the renewal of all things, the rebirth, the end times, the Son of Man would be seated on his glorious throne.  At that same time, his followers, these 12 disciple apostles, would sit on 12 thrones, judging the 12 tribes of Israel.  Everyone who has left houses, brothers, sisters, father, mother, children, or lands for his name would receive a hundredfold.  They would inherit eternal life.  The reward would be great.  Don’t worry.  Are you concerned that you have left your family to follow Jesus?

The new and old wine (Lk 5:38-5:39)

“But new wine

Must be put into

Fresh wineskins.

No one,

After drinking old wine

Desires new wine.

But he says.

‘The old wine

Is good.’”

 

ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς βλητέον.

καὶ οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν θέλει νέον· λέγει γάρ Ὁ παλαιὸς χρηστός ἐστιν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that new wine (ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον) must be put into fresh, new, or unused wineskins (εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς βλητέον).  No one, after drinking old wine (καὶ οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν), desires new wine (θέλει νέον).  But he says (λέγει γάρ) that the old wine was good (Ὁ παλαιὸς χρηστός ἐστιν).  Interesting enough, Luke has the first verse like Mark, chapter 2:22, and Matthew, chapter 9:17, but then he uniquely added that that old wine was good because people did not like new wine.  Both Mark and Matthew said that new wine should be poured into fresh or new wineskin leather pouches.  Thus, both the wine and the wineskins would be preserved.  They seem to be saying not to mix up the new with the old, since they are incompatible.  Here Luke said that the old was better, when most of the teaching was about the renewal of the old ways.

The first and the last (Mk 10:31-10:31)

But many who are first

Will be last.

The last

Will be first.”

 

πολλοὶ δὲ ἔσονται πρῶτοι ἔσχατοι καὶ οἱ ἔσχατοι πρῶτοι.

 

This eschatological saying about the reversal of order can be found in Matthew, chapter 19:30, and Luke, chapter 13:30, almost word for word.  This same saying will be repeated by Matthew in chapter 20:16 about day laborers.  This renewal at the end times, would reverse the earthly hierarchy.  Mark and Matthew say that this will happen to many people, while Luke said only some people.  Here many people who are now first will be last (πολλοὶ δὲ ἔσονται πρῶτοι ἔσχατοι), while the people last now will be first (καὶ οἱ ἔσχατοι πρῶτοι) at the end eschatological renewal final time.  This is a saying often used to remind people that things will not always be the same as they are today.

The first and the last (Mt 19:30-19:30)

“But many

Who are first

Will be last.

The last

Will be first.”

 

Πολλοὶ δὲ ἔσονται πρῶτοι ἔσχατοι καὶ ἔσχατοι πρῶτοι.

 

This eschatological saying about the reversal of order can be found in Mark, chapter 10:31, word for word, and Luke, chapter 13:30, but slightly different.  This same saying will be repeated by Matthew in chapter 20:16 about day laborers.  This renewal at the end times, would reverse the earthly hierarchy.  Mark and Matthew say that this will happen to many people, while Luke said only some people.  Here many people (Πολλοὶ) who are now first will be last (Πολλοὶ δὲ ἔσονται πρῶτοι ἔσχατοι), while the people last now will be first (καὶ ἔσχατοι πρῶτοι) at the end eschatological renewal final time.  This is a saying often used to remind people that things will not always be the same as they are today.

The eternal life reward (Mt 19:28-19:29)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Truly!

I say to you!

At the renewal of all things,

When the Son of Man

Is seated on his glorious throne,

You who have followed me

Will also sit on twelve thrones,

Judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Everyone who has left

Houses,

Or brothers,

Or sisters,

Or father

Or mother

Or children

Or lands,

For my name’s sake,

Will receive a hundredfold.

They will inherit eternal life.’”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ὑμεῖς οἱ ἀκολουθήσαντές μοι, ἐν τῇ παλινγενεσίᾳ, ὅταν καθίσῃ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐπὶ θρόνου δόξης αὐτοῦ, καθήσεσθε καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐπὶ δώδεκα θρόνους κρίνοντες τὰς δώδεκα φυλὰς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ.

καὶ πᾶς ὅστις ἀφῆκεν οἰκίας ἢ ἀδελφοὺς ἢ ἀδελφὰς ἢ πατέρα ἢ μητέρα ἢ τέκνα ἢ ἀγροὺς ἕνεκεν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ὀνόματός, πολλαπλασίονα λήμψεται καὶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσει.

 

This demanding saying of Jesus, talking about giving up family and land for eternal life, can be found in Mark, chapter 10:29-30, and Luke, chapter 18:29-30, but slightly different.  Jesus then issued a solemn proclamation to his disciples (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  He told them, if they had followed him (ὅτι ὑμεῖς οἱ ἀκολουθήσαντές μοι), that at the renewal of all things, the rebirth, the end times (ἐν τῇ παλινγενεσίᾳ), the Son of Man would be seated on his glorious throne (ὅταν καθίσῃ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐπὶ θρόνου δόξης αὐτοῦ).  At that same time, his followers, these 12 disciple apostles, would sit on 12 thrones, judging the 12 tribes of Israel (καθήσεσθε καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐπὶ δώδεκα θρόνους κρίνοντες τὰς δώδεκα φυλὰς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ).  Everyone who has left (καὶ πᾶς ὅστις ἀφῆκεν) houses (οἰκίας), brothers (ἢ ἀδελφοὺς), sisters (ἢ ἀδελφὰς), father (ἢ πατέρα), mother (ἢ μητέρα), children (ἢ τέκνα), or lands (ἢ ἀγροὺς) for his name (ἕνεκεν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ὀνόματός) would receive a hundredfold (πολλαπλασίονα λήμψεται).  They would inherit eternal life (καὶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσει).

I will be your God (Jer 30:22-30:22)

“You shall be my people.

I will be your God.”

The main reason for all the good times to come was simple. They were going to be God’s people. He, in turn, was going to be their God. This great phrase was the renewal of the covenant of Yahweh with his people, the people of Israel.

 

The prayer of Tobit for Jerusalem (Tob 13:9-13:10)

“O Jerusalem,

The holy city,

He afflicted you with the deeds of your hands.

But he will again have mercy on the children of the righteous.

Acknowledge the Lord.

He is good.

Bless the King of the ages.

May his tent be rebuilt in you again with joy.

May he cheer all those within you who are captives.

May he love all those within you who are distressed,

To all generations forever.”

Tobit turned to Jerusalem, the holy city. God Had afflicted them. However, he would have mercy on the children of the righteous, as long as they acknowledged the Lord. God is good and the king of ages. He would rebuild his tent in Jerusalem. He would cheer the captives. He loved those who were distressed. Tobit prayed for the renewal of Jerusalem.

The new covenant (Neh 9:38-9:38)

“Because of all this we make a firm agreement in writing. On that sealed document are inscribed the names of our officials, our Levites, and our priests.”

Apparently Nehemiah came up with the idea of a new written covenant, which is nothing more than a renewal of the old covenant, after this great prayer of Ezra. He wanted all the officials, Levites, and priests to sign it or put their seal on it. Actually King Josiah (640-609 BCE), before the Exile, had a renewal of the covenant but it was only an oral one, not written. We shall see how this written covenant works out.


The renewed Covenant (Ex 34:10-34:28)

“He said, ‘I hereby make a covenant.  Before all your people I will perform marvels, such as have not been performed in all the earth or in any nation.  All the people among whom you live shall see the work of Yahweh.  For it is an awesome thing that I will do with you.’”

Yahweh says that he will make a covenant.  He will perform great unforeseen miracles. Everyone will see how awesome he is. This comes after the beautiful poetic proclamation of the preceding verses. Here the restrictions are more precise.

“Observe what I command you today.  See, I will drive out before you the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites.  Take care not to make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land to which you are going, or it will become a snare among you.   You shall tear down their altars, break their pillars, and cut down their sacred poles.   You shall worship no other god, for Yahweh, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.   You shall not make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land.  When they prostitute themselves to their gods and sacrifice to their gods, someone among them will invite you, and you will eat of the sacrifice.   You will take wives from among their daughters for your sons.  Their daughters who prostitute themselves to their gods will make yours sons also prostitute themselves to their gods.  You shall not make cast idols.”

Yahweh asks them to observe what he commands today. This is an elaboration and a repetition of many of the cultic demands of chapter 23.  Once again there is a mention of the six groups that will be driven out of Canaan.  They are not to make a covenant with these people.  On the contrary they are to tear down the various religious objects among these people, their altars, their pillars, and their sacred totem poles. Yahweh is a jealous God.  They are not to get involved with any of these people, eat their sacrificial food, or marry their sons or daughters.  Finally the reminder that they should not make any idols.

“You shall keep the festival of unleavened bread.  Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month of Abib.  In the month Abib you came out from Egypt.”

The festival of the seven days of unleavened bread is in the month of Abib as an important reminder that you came out of Egypt in that month.

“All that opens the womb is mine, all your male livestock, the first-born of cow and sheep.   The first-born of a donkey, you shall redeem with a lamb.  If you will not redeem it you shall break its neck.  All the first-born of your sons you shall redeem.  No one shall appear before me empty-handed.” 

All of the first-born of humans and animals shall be consecrated to Yahweh.   As in chapter 13, you can substitute with a sheep for a donkey. If you do not substitute or redeem the first-born donkey you must break its neck.  Every first born of your sons shall be redeemed.  No one should appear before Yahweh empty-handed.

“Six days you shall work.  But on the seventh day you shall rest.  Even in plowing time and in harvest time you shall rest.  You shall observe the festival of weeks the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the festival of ingathering at the turn of the year.  Three times in the year all your males shall appear before Yahweh God, the God of Israel.  I will cast out nations before you, and enlarge your borders.  No one shall covet your land when you go up to appear before Yahweh your God three times in the year.”

You work for six days and rest on the seventh even in plowing and harvest time. You shall observe the festival of weeks and the festival of ingathering. 3 times a year all the males shall appear before Yahweh.  The 3 feasts are the Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, and Booths.

“You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven, and the sacrifice of the festival of the Passover shall not be left until the morning.  The best of the first fruits of your ground you shall bring to the house of Yahweh your God.  You shall not boil a kid in its mother’s milk.”

Like in chapter 23, almost word for word, you cannot mix your blood sacrifice with leavened bread.  You had to eat the sacrifice or burn it the next day.  You only bring the best to Yahweh.  Of course you do not boil a kid in its mother’s milk.  This last admonition refers to a Canaanite sacrifice practice as mentioned in chapter 23.

“Yahweh said to Moses, ‘Write these words.  In accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.’   He was there with Yahweh forty days and forty nights.  He neither ate bread nor drank water. He wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.”

Then Yahweh told Moses to write the words of the covenant with him and the Israelites on the tablets.  Moses was there with Yahweh, fasting for 40 days and 40 nights.  So he wrote the 10 commandments of the covenant on the tablets. This is different from the first broken tablets that were written with the finger of Yahweh.