Luke indicated that Jesus justified the resurrection, that the dead are raised up (ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροὶ). Jesus used the example of Moses at the thorn bush (καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς Βάτου), when he called Yahweh or the Lord (ὡς λέγει Κύριον) the God of Abraham (τὸν Θεὸν Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰακώβ). Jesus continued with this same explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:31-32, and Mark, chapter 12:26. They all refer to Moses at the burning bush in Exodus, chapter 3:6, a mysterious theophany, that is implied without being explicitly mentioned here. Mark indicated that Jesus said that the dead will rise up (περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται). Jesus then reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct book of Moses (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως). Jesus then referenced this saying of Yahweh to Moses at the bush (ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου). Yahweh God spoke to Moses saying (πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ λέγων) that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ). Matthew indicated that Jesus reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct sayings of God (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑμῖν ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ λέγοντος), concerning the resurrection of the dead (περὶ δὲ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῶν νεκρῶν). He did not say “the correct book” as in Mark. He then referenced the saying of Yahweh to Moses at the burning bush, that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ). Do you believe in your resurrection in the afterlife?
Luke is the only synoptic writer with this parable about the widow and the bad judge. Luke indicated that Jesus said there was a widow in that city (χήρα δὲ ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ). She kept coming to this bad judge (καὶ ἤρχετο πρὸς αὐτὸν). She said (λέγουσα) that she wanted justice or restitution (Ἐκδίκησόν με) against her opponent or adversary (ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀντιδίκου μου). Widows were the powerless and vulnerable in Jewish society, since they had lost the support of their husbands. People would always be reminded to help the poor and the widows, as they were considered the same class of people, since generally, older women without husbands were poor. This particular widow had a case against someone, so that she kept coming back to his bad judge to achieve justice or vengeance on her part. Have you ever sued anyone?
Luke indicated that Jesus, the Lord, replied (εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος) that if they had faith (Εἰ ἔχετε πίστιν) the size of a mustard seed (ὡς κόκκον σινάπεως), they could say (ἐλέγετε) to this mulberry or sycamore tree (ἂν τῇ συκαμίνῳ ταύτῃ), be rooted up (Ἐκριζώθητι) and planted in the sea (καὶ φυτεύθητι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ). Luke is the only biblical writer to use the Greek term συκαμίνῳ that means a black mulberry tree or a sycamore tree that had medicinal value. Then this tree would obey them (καὶ ὑπήκουσεν ἂν ὑμῖν). There are expanded faith sayings that can also be found in Mark, chapter 9:28-29, and Matthew, chapter 17:19-21, who are much closer to each other. Matthew indicated that the disciples came to Jesus privately (Τότε προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ τῷ Ἰησοῦ). They wondered why they were not able to cast out the evil spirits from that boy (κατ’ ἰδίαν εἶπον Διὰ τί ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό). Jesus reminded them (ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐτοῖς) of their little faith (Διὰ τὴν ὀλιγοπιστίαν ὑμῶν), a term used predominately by Matthew. Jesus came back with a solemn pronouncement (ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν) that if they had faith the size of a mustard seed (ἐὰν ἔχητε πίστιν ὡς κόκκον σινάπεως), like here in Luke, they could move mountains from here to there (ἐρεῖτε τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ Μετάβα ἔνθεν ἐκεῖ, καὶ μεταβήσεται). Nothing would be impossible for them (καὶ οὐδὲν ἀδυνατήσει ὑμῖν). If they had faith with prayer and fasting (εἰ μὴ ἐν προσευχῇ καὶ νηστείᾳ), they would be able to cast the evil spirits out (τοῦτο δὲ τὸ γένος οὐκ ἐκπορεύεται). Matthew continued to emphasize the lack of faith or the little faith of the disciples of Jesus. Mark said that the disciples wondered why they were not able to cast out the evil spirit from that boy (Ὅτι ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό). The disciples were concerned that they must have lacked something that made it impossible for them to get rid of this evil spirit that was in that boy. Mark added the need for prayer. There was no emphasis on faith as in Matthew, where Jesus talked about faith and the mustard seed. Mark emphasized prayer, as he indicated that Jesus said that this kind of evil spirit could only be expelled (Τοῦτο τὸ γένος ἐν οὐδενὶ δύναται ἐξελθεῖν) through prayer (εἰ μὴ ἐν προσευχῇ). Prayer might imply faith, but it is not explicit here in Luke. Which is more important to you, faith or prayer?
Luke indicated that the Lord Jesus said to the Pharisee (εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος πρὸς αὐτόν) that they, the Pharisees (Νῦν ὑμεῖς οἱ Φαρισαῖοι), clean (καθαρίζετε) the outside of the cup and the dish (τὸ ἔξωθεν τοῦ ποτηρίου καὶ τοῦ πίνακος). However, their inside (τὸ δὲ ἔσωθεν ὑμῶν) was full of (γέμει) greed or plundering (ἁρπαγῆς) and evil wickedness (καὶ πονηρίας). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:25-26, but Jesus was cursing the Pharisees there. Matthew said that Jesus continued to curse the Pharisees and the Scribes as hypocrites for their impure hearts or intentions. They cleaned the outside of the cup and the plate, but let the inside remain full of greed or robbery and self-indulgence. Jesus called them blind Pharisees. He reminded them to first clean the inside of their cups and their plates. Then. the outside would be clean also. Their interior heart was important. Luke repeated that same message here. How clean are you on the inside?
Luke said that this woman came up behind Jesus (ροσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν). She touched the fringe of his cloak (ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ). Instantly, her bleeding stopped (καὶ παραχρῆμα ἔστη ἡ ῥύσις τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς). This woman touching Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 9:21, and Mark, chapter 5:27-29, so that Mark might be the source. Mark said that this woman had heard about Jesus, so that she came up behind him with the crowd all around Jesus. She wanted to touch his cloak, with no mention of the fringes or edges of Jesus’ clothes. She was saying to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. Immediately, her flowing blood dried up or stopped when she touched it. She realized in her body that she was healed from her disease. This woman was aware of what was happening to her own body as she was healed. Matthew said that she came up behind Jesus, because she wanted to touch the fringe or the tassel edge of his cloak. These fringes (κρασπέδου) or bottom tassels often reminded people about the 10 commandments. She was thinking to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. She had a plan to help herself by touching the garment of Jesus. Have you ever tried to touch someone in a crowd?
Once again, this is the same as Matthew, chapter 4:3, nearly word for word. Luke said that Jesus responded to the devil (καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by citing a Septuagint written phrase (Γέγραπται) from Deuteronomy, chapter 8:3, about the fact that man does not live by bread alone (ὅτι Οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος). Luke did not finish this phrase the way that Matthew did by saying that man lives by all the words that come from the mouth of God. In Deuteronomy, Yahweh had reminded the Israelites that they had been tested for 40 years with hunger. Then came this saying about not living by bread alone, but by every word that came from the mouth of Yahweh, an anthropomorphism for Yahweh’s law. The Book of Deuteronomy was the most quoted book of the Torah in these New Testament writings.
This is almost word for word in Mathew, chapter 26:11, and somewhat similar to John, chapter 12:8. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they would always have poor people with them (πάντοτε γὰρ τοὺς πτωχοὺς ἔχετε μεθ’ ἑαυτῶν). In other words, there would be no immediate solution to the difficulties of poverty that has persisted for over 2,000 years. Mark also indicated that Jesus added that they were able to do kind or good acts to the poor whenever they wished or wanted (καὶ ὅταν θέλητε δύνασθε αὐτοῖς εὖ ποιῆσαι). However, Jesus reminded them in the first person singular that they would not always have him (ἐμὲ δὲ οὐ πάντοτε ἔχετε).
There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 26:2, and in Luke, chapter 22:1, where there was talk of the Passover in 2 days. There were 3 major annual pilgrimage festivals in Jerusalem, Pentecost, Booths, and Passover, with Passover the most popular. This Passover feast celebrated the Israelite Exodus from Egypt. Therefore, this festival reminded the Jewish people of their escape from a foreign country. Thus, the Roman leaders had a heightened alert with more troops in Jerusalem. Mark indicated that Jesus said to his disciples that it was 2 days (μετὰ δύο ἡμέρας), before the Passover (Ἦν δὲ τὸ πάσχα), the festival of Unleavened Bread (καὶ τὰ ἄζυμα) that lasted a whole week. Passover and Unleavened bread were one festival, not 2 separate ones.
Jesus continued his explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:31-32, and Luke, chapter 20:37. They all refer to Moses at the burning bush, a mysterious theophany that overwhelmed Moses, but is not explicitly mentioned here. However, this was implied by the comment about God based on Exodus, chapter 3:6. Mark said that the dead will rise up (περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται). Jesus reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct book of Moses (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως), and not “the sayings of God” as in Matthew. Jesus then referenced this saying of Yahweh to Moses in Exodus, chapter 3:1-6, about the burning bush (ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου). Yahweh God spoke to Moses saying (πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ λέγων) that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ).
There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 20:26-27, almost word for word, and Luke 22:26, but slightly different. Mark said that Jesus reminded them that their authority was not going to be like the gentiles among themselves (οὐχ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἐν ὑμῖν). The early Christian leaders, the 12 apostles, would lead this newly forming community of Jesus followers. Whoever wanted to be great among them (ἀλλ’ ὃς ἂν θέλῃ μέγας γενέσθαι ἐν ὑμῖν) must be their servant or waiter, their ministerial deacons (ἔσται ὑμῶν διάκονος). Whoever wanted to be first among them (καὶ ὃς ἂν θέλῃ ἐν ὑμῖν εἶναι πρῶτος) must be their slave (ἔσται ὑμῶν δοῦλος). Clearly, Jesus wanted his new leaders not to be like the gentile Roman leaders, but true leaders who served their people. The early 12 apostolic leaders were to practice servant leadership, not dictatorial leadership. They were forming a new kind of community that was not hierarchical but service orientated.