“These are the words of the covenant that Yahweh commanded Moses to make with the Israelites in the land of Moab, in addition to the covenant that he had made with them at Horeb.”
In other words, the Ten Commandments of Horeb or Mt. Sinai is being supplemented by this Deuteronomic Code that Moses is issuing here in the land of Moab.
“Moses summoned all Israel and said to them. ‘You have seen all that Yahweh did before your eyes in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, to all his servants and to all his land, the great trials that your eyes saw, the signs, and those great wonders. But to this day Yahweh has not given you a mind to understand, or eyes to see, or ears to hear.”
You and your ancestors saw what happened in Egypt, but do you really understand what this is all about? You need a mind to understand, eyes to see, and ears to hear.
“I have led you forty years in the wilderness. The clothes on your back have not worn out. The sandals on your feet have not worn out. You have not eaten bread. You have not drunk wine or strong drink, so that you may know that I am Yahweh your God. When you came to this place, King Sihon of Heshbon and King Og of Bashan came out against us for battle, but we defeated them. We took their land, and gave it as an inheritance to the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of the Manassites.”
All of this was explained earlier in this book in chapters 2-3. They never wore out their clothes or shoes in 40 years. They never ate bread or drank wine or strong drink. However, they defeated King Sihon and Og and gave their land to the 2 ½ tribes.
“Therefore diligently observe the words of this covenant, in order that you might succeed in everything that you do. You stand assembled today, all of you, before Yahweh your God, the leaders of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, all the men of Israel, your little children, your women, and the aliens who are in your camp, both those who cut your wood and those who draw your water, to enter into the covenant of Yahweh your God, sworn by an oath, which Yahweh your God is making with you today. In order that he may establish you today as his people, that he may be your God, as he promised you, and as he swore to your ancestors, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.”
Everyone understood that this was the day of the alliance and covenant. All realized the day of the promise can come true. The promise to the ancestors was to be fulfilled. The aliens must have been the servants in the camp who were not Israelites but performed menial actions.