The herdsmen tell everyone (Lk 8:34-8:34)

“When the swine herdsmen

Saw what had happened,

They ran off.

They reported this

In the city

And in the countryside.”

 

ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ βόσκοντες τὸ γεγονὸς ἔφυγον καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς.

 

Luke said that when the swine herdsmen saw what had happened (ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ βόσκοντες τὸ γεγονὸς), they ran off (ἔφυγον).  They reported (καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν) this in the city (εἰς τὴν πόλιν) and the in the countryside (καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς).  All three synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 8:33, Mark, chapter 5:14, and Luke here, have the herdsmen of these pigs tell everybody in the area what happened, with slight nuances in each story.  Mark said that the shepherds of this herd of pigs fled when they saw what had happened to their flocks.  They recounted the whole story about what had happened to the demoniac and their herd of pigs to the town and the countryside.  However, people came out to see what had happened, to see what had taken place.  Matthew said that the shepherds of these herds of pigs ran off when they saw what had happened to their flocks.  They went into the town, probably Gadara.  Then they told the whole story about what had happened to the demoniacs and their herd of pigs.  They were without a job.  Have you ever lost your job suddenly?

The gospel preaching of John (Lk 3:18-3:18)

“Thus,

With many other exhortations,

John proclaimed

The good news gospel

To the people.”

 

Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἕτερα παρακαλῶν εὐηγγελίζετο τὸν λαόν·

 

Only Luke has this explanation that John the Baptist with many other exhortations (Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἕτερα παρακαλῶν), other than those recounted here, proclaimed the good news to the people (εὐηγγελίζετο τὸν λαόν).  Was this the same good news or gospel (εὐηγγελίζετο) that Jesus would later preach?  Luke was the only one among the other gospel writers who linked John and Jesus as relatives in chapter 1:36.  John’s mother, Elizabeth, and Jesus’ mother, Mary, were relatives of some sort, thus making their children relatives or cousins also.  They could be compared in some ways to Aaron and Moses or the later Peter and Paul.  One was superior to the other, but the other played an indispensable role.  John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century CE.  He used baptism, some kind of dipping in water, as the central symbol or sacrament of his messianic movement.  Thus, he became known as the one who baptizes, the Baptizer, John the Baptist.  This John certainly had a relationship with Jesus, but the exact relationship between John and Jesus is also problematic.  They may have originally been co-workers.  However, they separated as Jesus went along a different route.  However, the shadow of John the Baptist appeared again and again in the biblical stories about Jesus and his apostles.  Some believe that Jesus may have been an early follower or disciple of John, but the textual indications are that John saw himself as clearly subservient to Jesus.  Some of Jesus’ early followers had previously been followers of John, such as the apostle Andrew, the brother of Simon, in John, chapter 1:40, and in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 19:2-6.  There may have been also some contact between John the Baptist and the Qumran-Essene community, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found.  John might have been associated with them or part of their community for a while.  Thus, John the Baptist has been revered as a prophet and a Christian saint throughout the centuries.

The betrayer is near (Mk 14:42-14:42)

“Get up!

Let us be going!

See!

My betrayer

Is at hand.”

 

ἐγείρεσθε ἄγωμεν· ἰδοὺ ὁ παραδιδούς με ἤγγικεν.

 

This is word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:46.  In Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 22, there was nothing more about these sleeping disciples of Jesus.  Mark recounted that Jesus said to his 3 sleeping apostles that they had to rise up or get up and get going (ἐγείρεσθε ἄγωμεν).  The betrayer was approaching them nearby right away (ἰδοὺ ὁ παραδιδούς ἤγγικεν με).  The time for resting was over.  All hands-on deck!  The betrayer was coming to get him very soon.

Are you still sleeping? (Mk 14:41-14:41)

“Jesus came

A third time.

He said to them.

‘Are you still sleeping?

Are you still

Taking your rest?

Enough!

The hour has come!

The Son of man

Is betrayed

Into the hands

Of sinners.’”

 

καὶ ἔρχεται τὸ τρίτον καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Καθεύδετε τὸ λοιπὸν καὶ ἀναπαύεσθε· ἀπέχει· ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα, ἰδοὺ παραδίδοται ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰς τὰς χεῖρας τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:45.  In Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 22, there is nothing more about these sleeping disciples of Jesus.  Mark recounted that Jesus came to his 3 disciples for a 3rd time (καὶ ἔρχεται τὸ τρίτον).  He spoke to them (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς).  He wanted to know why they were still sleeping and taking their rest (Καθεύδετε τὸ λοιπὸν καὶ ἀναπαύεσθε)?  Jesus told them that this was enough (ἀπέχει).  He woke them up to tell them that the hour had come (ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα) when the Son of Man was going to be betrayed or handed over (ἰδοὺ παραδίδοται ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) into the hands of sinners (εἰς τὰς χεῖρας τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν).  The time for sleeping was over.

 

Jesus found them asleep again (Mk 14:40-14:40)

“Once more,

Jesus came.

He found them

Sleeping.

Their eyes

Were very heavy.

They did not know

What to say to him.”

 

καὶ πάλιν ἐλθὼν εὗρεν αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας, ἦσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ καταβαρυνόμενοι, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδεισαν τί ἀποκριθῶσιν αὐτῷ.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:43, but there is an addition about the apostles being embarrassed and not able to say anything here.  In Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 22, there is nothing more about these 2nd and 3rd visits of Jesus.  Mark recounted that Jesus again came (καὶ πάλιν ἐλθὼν) and this time he again found his 3 disciples sleeping (εὗρεν αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας), because their eyes were heavy or overburdened (ἦσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ καταβαρυνόμενοι).  This was the 2nd time that he found his 3 trusted apostles sleeping.  There were no excuses, except that they were tired.  They did not know what to answer to Jesus (καὶ οὐκ ᾔδεισαν τί ἀποκριθῶσιν αὐτῷ).  They had failed to stay awake and be vigilant, pure and simple.

Watch and pray (Mk 14:38-14:38)

“Keep awake!

Pray!

That you may not come

Into the time of trial!

The spirit indeed

Is willing,

But the flesh

Is weak.’”

 

γρηγορεῖτε καὶ προσεύχεσθε, ἵνα μὴ ἔλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν· τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 14:41.  Luke, chapter 22:45-46, is somewhat similar, while in John, chapter 22, there were no indications of this action in the garden.  Mark recounted that Jesus told Peter and the other 2 disciples to stay awake, watch, and be vigilant (γρηγορεῖτε).  They should pray (καὶ προσεύχεσθε) that their time of temptation or trial did not come (ἵνα μὴ ἔλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν), because they did not seem to be ready.  Then Jesus remarked that the spirit indeed was willing (τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον), but the flesh was weak (ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής).  Jesus was reprimanding Peter and the other 2 disciples in a mild but firm way.  They needed to be more vigilant.

Why are you asleep? (Mk 14:37-14:37)

“Jesus came back.

He found them

Sleeping.

He said to Peter.

‘Simon!

Are you asleep?

Could you not

Keep awake

One hour?’”

 

καὶ ἔρχεται καὶ εὑρίσκει αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας, καὶ λέγει τῷ Πέτρῳ Σίμων, καθεύδεις; οὐκ ἴσχυσας μίαν ὥραν γρηγορῆσαι

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:40, but Mark calls Peter “Simon”.  Luke, chapter 22:45-46, is somewhat similar, while in John, chapter 22, there were no indications of this action in the garden.  Mark recounted that Jesus came back to his 3 special apostles (καὶ ἔρχεται), where he found them sleeping (καὶ εὑρίσκει αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας).  Then he complained to Simon Peter (καὶ λέγει τῷ Πέτρῳ Σίμων) that he was asleep (καθεύδεις).  He could not even stay awake or watch with him for merely one hour (οὐκ ἴσχυσας μίαν ὥραν γρηγορῆσαι).  Jesus was upset at their lack of attentiveness.