The brother’s sins (Lk 17:3-17:3)

“Pay attention to yourself!

If your brother disciple

Sins,

You must rebuke

The offender.

If there is repentance,

You must forgive.”

 

προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς. ἐὰν ἁμάρτῃ ὁ ἀδελφός σου, ἐπιτίμησον αὐτῷ, καὶ ἐὰν μετανοήσῃ, ἄφες αὐτῷ.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to pay attention (προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς).  If a brother disciple sinned (ἐὰν ἁμάρτῃ ὁ ἀδελφός σου), they must rebuke the offender (ἐπιτίμησον αὐτῷ).  If there is repentance (καὶ ἐὰν μετανοήσῃ), they must forgive him (ἄφες αὐτῷ).  This saying about the sinning brother is something similar in Matthew, chapter 18:15, perhaps indicating a Q source, with some minor changes.  Luke wanted the one offended to forgive the original offense.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that if one of your brothers had sinned against you (Ἐὰν δὲ ἁμαρτήσῃ ὁ ἀδελφός σου), point out that fault or rebuke him (ὕπαγε ἔλεγξον αὐτὸν), when the two of you are alone (μεταξὺ σοῦ καὶ αὐτοῦ μόνου).  If he listened to you (ἐάν σου ἀκούσῃ), you have regained your brother (ἐκέρδησας τὸν ἀδελφόν σου).  There was no mention of any forgiveness here.  Is this a blood brother or a fellow disciple of Jesus brother?  It appears to be a fellow follower of Jesus.  Forgiveness was important.  Matthew had a more elaborate process of rebuking and forgiving.  How do you forgive people?

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Adultery (Lk 16:18-16:18)

“Anyone who divorces

His wife,

And marries another,

Commits adultery.

Whoever marries

A woman,

Divorced

From her husband,

Commits adultery.”

 

Πᾶς ὁ ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ γαμῶν ἑτέραν μοιχεύει, καὶ ὁ ἀπολελυμένην ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς γαμῶν μοιχεύει.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that anyone who put away or divorced his wife (Πᾶς ὁ ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ), and married another woman (καὶ γαμῶν ἑτέραν), committed adultery (μοιχεύει).  Whoever married (γαμῶν) a woman, divorced from her husband (καὶ ὁ ἀπολελυμένην ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς), committed adultery (μοιχεύει).  This response of Jesus to his disciples can be found also in Matthew, chapter 19:9, where there was also an emphasis on divorce as adultery.  Mark, chapter 10:11-12 indicated that Jesus said to his disciples (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) that whoever divorced his wife (Ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ) and married another woman (καὶ γαμήσῃ ἄλλην), committed adultery against her (μοιχᾶται ἐπ’ αὐτήν).  Jesus had taken the stronger stance of no divorce.  There was no exception about sexual misconduct as in Matthew.  In Jewish society, women could not divorce their husbands, but in Roman society or among the gentiles, women could divorce their husbands.  Mark indicated that Jesus gave the same rebuke to the women as he given to the men.  If a woman divorced her husband (καὶ ἐὰν αὐτὴ ἀπολύσασα τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς), and married someone else (γαμήσῃ ἄλλον), she committed adultery (μοιχᾶται).  There were no exceptions, not even for spousal abuse.  The new marriage was adulterous.  In Matthew, Jesus responded to the Pharisees (λέγει αὐτοῖς).  He said that Moses allowed them to divorce their wives (Ὅτι Μωϋσῆς …ἐπέτρεψεν ὑμῖν ἀπολῦσαι τὰς γυναῖκας ὑμῶν) because they were so hard-hearted, perverse, and obstinate (πρὸς τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν).  However, as he had noted earlier, this was not so from the beginning (ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς δὲ οὐ γέγονεν οὕτως).  Then in a solemn proclamation (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν) he said that whoever divorced his wife and married another woman committed adultery (ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ…καὶ γαμήσῃ ἄλλην, μοιχᾶται), except for the sexual immorality or fornication (μὴ ἐπὶ πορνείᾳ) of his wife.  Jesus had taken the stronger stance of no divorce, but gave one exception, the sexual misconduct of the wife, much like some of the stricter Jewish rabbis at that time.  This exception was not in Mark or here in Luke.  Do you think that there should be exceptions for divorce?

They were amazed at Jesus (Lk 8:25-8:25)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Where is your faith?’

They were afraid.

Yet they were amazed.

They said

To one another.

‘Who then is this?

He commands

Even the winds

And the water!

They obey him!’”

 

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν; φοβηθέντες δὲ ἐθαύμασαν, λέγοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν, ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέμοις ἐπιτάσσει καὶ τῷ ὕδατι, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus asked his disciples (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς) where was their faith (Ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν)?  They were afraid (φοβηθέντες), but amazed (δὲ ἐθαύμασαν) at the same time.  They said to one another (λέγοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους).  Who is this (Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν) that commands (ἐπιτάσσει) even the winds (ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέμοις) and the water (καὶ τῷ ὕδατι)?  Both the winds and the water obey him (καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ).  This rebuke of Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 8:26-27, and Mark, chapter 4:40-41, in a somewhat similar manner.  Mark said that Jesus then turned to his followers and asked them why they were afraid?  Was it because they still had no faith?  Jesus called out his disciples for their lack of faith or trust, while showing his great power.  Perhaps, this was a slap at some of the early Christian followers of Jesus, who lacked a strong belief in him.  These male disciples of Jesus were filled with great fear or awe.  They said to one another who is this man?  Both the winds and the seas obey or listen to him.  Matthew said that these disciples of Jesus marveled or were amazed at what they had just seen take place.  They wondered out loud what kind of man that Jesus was?  Both the winds and the seas obey him.  Jesus was the Lord of nature and weather.  Do you believe that Jesus can control the winds and the water?

My Father’s house (Lk 2:49-2:49)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Why are you searching

For me?

Did you not know

That I must be

In my Father’s house?’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Τί ὅτι ἐζητεῖτέ με; οὐκ ᾔδειτε ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ Πατρός μου δεῖ εἶναί με;

 

Luke had Jesus respond in a sharp fashion.  Jesus said to them (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) why were they searching for him (Τί ὅτι ἐζητεῖτέ με).  Did they not know (οὐκ ᾔδειτε) that he had to be or that it was his duty to be in his Father’s house (ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ Πατρός μου δεῖ εἶναί με)?  This sounds like a rebuke to his parents.  However, Jesus seemed to indicate that he had a higher mission.  The main question is why did he wait nearly 20 years after this before he began his special Fatherly mission?

Peter rebukes Jesus (Mk 8:32-8:32)

“Jesus said

All this

Quite openly.

Peter took him aside.

He began

To rebuke Jesus.”

 

καὶ παρρησίᾳ τὸν λόγον ἐλάλει. καὶ προσλαβόμενος ὁ Πέτρος αὐτὸν ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ

 

Mark recounted that Jesus said all these things openly (καὶ παρρησίᾳ τὸν λόγον ἐλάλει).  Then Jesus and Peter had a conversation that also can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:22.  Peter, using his new authority, took Jesus aside (καὶ προσλαβόμενος).  He began to warn, rebuke, or admonish him (ὁ Πέτρος αὐτὸν ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ).  However, there is no indication of what Peter said as there was in Matthew.  Apparently, Peter could not image a Messiah who would suffer and die.

Why were they afraid? (Mk 4:40-4:40)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Why are you afraid?

Have you still no faith?’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί δειλοί ἐστε οὕτως; πῶς οὐκ ἔχετε πίστιν;

 

This rebuke of Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 8:26, and Luke, chapter 8:25, in a somewhat similar manner.  Mark said that Jesus then turned to his followers and asked them (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) why they were afraid (Τί δειλοί ἐστε οὕτως)?  Was it because they still had no faith (πῶς οὐκ ἔχετε πίστιν)?  Jesus called out his disciples for their lack of faith or trust, while showing his great power.  Perhaps, this was a slap at some of the early Christian followers of Jesus, who lacked a strong belief in him.

Jesus cures the mother-in-law of Simon (Mk 1:31-1:31)

“Jesus came in.

He took her

By the hand.

He lifted her up.

Then the fever

Left her.

She began

To serve them.”

 

καὶ προσελθὼν ἤγειρεν αὐτὴν κρατήσας τῆς χειρός· καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός, καὶ διηκόνει αὐτοῖς.

 

Matthew, chapter 8:14, and Luke, chapter 4:39, have something similar, almost word for word.  Luke was more dramatic by having Jesus stand over her and rebuke the evil spirit.  Mark said that Jesus came in (καὶ προσελθὼν).  He took or touched her by the hand and lifted her up (ἤγειρεν αὐτὴν κρατήσας τῆς χειρός).  The fever left her (καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός).  She, then began to serve them (καὶ διηκόνει αὐτῷ) with her normal hospitality.  This was a typical healing that took place with a touching hand.  The mother-in law of Simon was cured so well that she was able to resume her normal activities.