And the chief priests
That he had told
ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην.
Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the chief priests (καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς) realized or perceived (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ) that he had told this parable against them (ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην). There was something similar in Matthew chapter 21:45, and Mark, chapter 12:12. Mark said that the unnamed “they” realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν). They were the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. The landowner was God the Father. The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the Son of the Father. In Matthew, the chief priests and the Pharisees (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) did not have to wait for an explanation of this parable about the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. They knew or realized, on hearing (Καὶ ἀκούσαντες) this parable story (τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ), that these evil tenants that Jesus was talking about was them (ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει). Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish religious leaders understood that this parable was clearly aimed at them. Have you ever realized that people were talking about you?
“But when he heard this,
He became sad.
He was very rich.”
ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας ταῦτα περίλυπος ἐγενήθη, ἦν γὰρ πλούσιος σφόδρα.
Luke indicated that when this ruler heard this (ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας ταῦτα), he became sad or grieved (περίλυπος ἐγενήθη), because he was extremely rich (ἦν γὰρ πλούσιος σφόδρα). This story about the young man being sad and walking away can be found in Mark, chapter 10:22, and Matthew, chapter 19:22, but slightly different. Luke did not explicitly say that the ruler went away, as in the other synoptic stories, just that he was sad. Mark said that this man was shocked at these words of Jesus (ὁ δὲ στυγνάσας ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ). Thus, he went away pained or grieving (ἀπῆλθεν λυπούμενος), because he had many possessions or a lot of property (ἦν γὰρ ἔχων κτήματα πολλά). In Matthew, when the young man heard this saying of Jesus (ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ νεανίσκος τὸν λόγον), he went away pained or grieving (ἀπῆλθεν λυπούμενος), because he had many possessions or a lot of property (ἦν γὰρ ἔχων κτήματα πολλά). This rich young man was willing to listen to Jesus but could not bring himself to totally commit his life, by giving up his worldly possessions. Thus, he went away very sad, because he realized his own situation, that he lacked the urge to make that final commitment to Jesus, by getting rid of his earthly wealth. Are you willing to make that big step?
“But when he came
Of my father’s
Have bread enough
But here I am
Dying of hunger.’”
εἰς ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἐλθὼν ἔφη Πόσοι μίσθιοι τοῦ πατρός μου περισσεύονται ἄρτων, ἐγὼ δὲ λιμῷ ὧδε ἀπόλλυμαι.
This long parable story about the prodigal son can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories. Luke indicated that Jesus said that when this prodigal son came to his senses or himself (εἰς ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἐλθὼν), he said that many of his father’s hired servants (ἔφη Πόσοι μίσθιοι τοῦ πατρός μου) had bread enough to spare or an abundance of bread (περισσεύονται ἄρτων). However, he was dying or perishing from hunger (ἐγὼ δὲ λιμῷ ὧδε ἀπόλλυμαι). This prodigal son realized that he had come from a privileged upbringing. Even the hired hands on his father’s and brother’s farm had more than enough bread to eat. He, on the other hand, was starving to death. Do you ever remember being very hungry?
“If he cannot,
While the other king
Is still far away,
He would send
εἰ δὲ μήγε, ἔτι αὐτοῦ πόρρω ὄντος πρεσβείαν ἀποστείλας ἐρωτᾷ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην.
Luke indicated that Jesus continued with his unique story about the king planning a war. Jesus said that if this king realized that he could not defeat the other king (εἰ δὲ μήγε), then, while this other king was still far away (ἔτι αὐτοῦ πόρρω ὄντος), he would send a delegation (πρεσβείαν ἀποστείλας), asking for peace terms (ἐρωτᾷ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην). Make peace instead of war, if you are outmanned and have no realistic hope of success. Would you rather fight or make peace?
καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο συνελάλουν αὐτῷ, οἵτινες ἦσαν Μωϋσῆς καὶ Ἡλείας,
Luke said that suddenly, the 3 apostles saw 2 men (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες), Moses (οἵτινες ἦσαν Μωϋσῆς) and Elijah (καὶ Ἡλείας), talking to Jesus (συνελάλουν αὐτῷ). This appearance of Moses and Elijah can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:34, Mark, chapter 9:4, and here in Luke. Mark said that Elijah with Moses, talking with Jesus, appeared to the 3 disciples. Matthew also said that suddenly Moses and Elijah were talking with Jesus in front of the 3 apostles. How did they know what Moses and Elijah looked like? They had never seen them before. They were nearly 1,000 years removed from their existence. Jesus, however, recognized and talked with them, so that is why they might have realized who they were. Thus, Jesus was the fulfillment of the Law of Moses and at the same time the fulfillment of the prophets with Elijah, one of the earliest prophets from the 9th century BCE. Moses and Elijah also represented the ancient righteous people. How would you recognize an ancient historical figure?
“Jesus said to her.
Has made you well!
Go in peace!’”
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Θυγάτηρ, ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε· πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην
Luke indicated that Jesus said to her (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ), calling her daughter (Θυγάτηρ), that her faith had saved her or made her well (ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε). Using the second person singular imperative, he told her that she was to go in peace (πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην). This ending to the healing of this woman with the flowing blood was nearly the same in Matthew, chapter 9:22, and Mark, chapter 5:34. Mark had pretty much the same narrative as Luke. Like the other healings, Jesus said to this woman that her faith had healed, cured, or saved her. He called her “daughter (Θυγάτηρ).” He told her to go in peace. This woman was cured of her affliction or disease, as faith was a key ingredient in this healing, as in every healing. Matthew was slightly different. He said that Jesus realized that power had gone forth from him. Jesus then turned around and saw her. He realized what she was thinking. Like the other times, Jesus said that her faith had saved or cured her. He called her “daughter (θύγατερ).” He told her to have courage and take heart. With that, this woman was cured at that very hour, rather than at the initial touching of the garment, as in the other 2 synoptics. Faith was a key ingredient in all these healings. How strong is your faith?
“She came up
Of his clothes.
Her bleeding stopped.”
προσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ, καὶ παραχρῆμα ἔστη ἡ ῥύσις τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς.
Luke said that this woman came up behind Jesus (ροσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν). She touched the fringe of his cloak (ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ). Instantly, her bleeding stopped (καὶ παραχρῆμα ἔστη ἡ ῥύσις τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς). This woman touching Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 9:21, and Mark, chapter 5:27-29, so that Mark might be the source. Mark said that this woman had heard about Jesus, so that she came up behind him with the crowd all around Jesus. She wanted to touch his cloak, with no mention of the fringes or edges of Jesus’ clothes. She was saying to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. Immediately, her flowing blood dried up or stopped when she touched it. She realized in her body that she was healed from her disease. This woman was aware of what was happening to her own body as she was healed. Matthew said that she came up behind Jesus, because she wanted to touch the fringe or the tassel edge of his cloak. These fringes (κρασπέδου) or bottom tassels often reminded people about the 10 commandments. She was thinking to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. She had a plan to help herself by touching the garment of Jesus. Have you ever tried to touch someone in a crowd?
“When Simon Peter
He fell down
At Jesus’ knees.
I am a sinful man!
ἰδὼν δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος προσέπεσεν τοῖς γόνασιν Ἰησοῦ λέγων Ἔξελθε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, ὅτι ἀνὴρ ἁμαρτωλός εἰμι, Κύριε.
Luke was the only one to describe the reaction of Simon to this big catch of fish. He admitted that he was a sinner. When Simon Peter saw what had happened (ἰδὼν δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος), he fell down at Jesus’ knees (προσέπεσεν τοῖς γόνασιν Ἰησοῦ). Notice that this is the first time that Simon was called Simon Peter. Obviously, this took place after the boats were at shore. Simon said that Jesus should go away from him (λέγων Ἔξελθε ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ) because he was a sinful man (ὅτι ἀνὴρ ἁμαρτωλός εἰμι). He called Jesus not a master or a teacher, but the Lord (Κύριε). This obviously is a theological statement, where Simon Peter confesses his sinfulness before the divine Lord. He realized that Jesus was special.
“When he did come out,
Could not speak
That he had seen
In the sanctuary.
He kept motioning
Unable to speak.”
ἐξελθὼν δὲ οὐκ ἐδύνατο λαλῆσαι αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐπέγνωσαν ὅτι ὀπτασίαν ἑώρακεν ἐν τῷ ναῷ· καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διανεύων αὐτοῖς, καὶ διέμενεν κωφός.
Luke indicated that the people praying in the Temple, outside the sanctuary, were surprised when Zechariah finally came out (ἐξελθὼν δὲ) of the sanctuary. They saw that Zechariah could not speak to them (οὐκ ἐδύνατο λαλῆσαι αὐτοῖς) or give his blessing. They realized or recognized (καὶ ἐπέγνωσαν) that he had seen a vision or had a supernatural experience (ὅτι ὀπτασίαν ἑώρακεν) while he was in the sanctuary (ἐν τῷ ναῷ). Zechariah kept motioning or making signs to them (καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διανεύων αὐτοῖς). However, he could not communicate with them, since he was unable to speak as he remained mute (καὶ διέμενεν κωφός).
That it was out of jealousy
That the chief priests
Had handed him over.”
ἐγίνωσκεν γὰρ ὅτι διὰ φθόνον παραδεδώκεισαν αὐτὸν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς.
This is something almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 27:18. Mark said that Pilate knew or realized (ἐγίνωσκεν γὰρ) that it was out of jealousy (ὅτι διὰ φθόνον) that the chief priests had handed Jesus over to him (παραδεδώκεισαν αὐτόν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς). Pilate was a cagey guy. Do you act out of jealousy?