Pray to the Father (Lk 11:2-11:2)

“Jesus said to them.

‘When you pray,

Say!

‘Father,

Hallowed be

Your name!

Your kingdom come!’”

 

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ὅταν προσεύχησθε, λέγετε Πάτερ, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου

 

Luke indicated that Jesus responded to his disciples (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς).  He told them how to pray (Ὅταν προσεύχησθε).  They were to say Father (λέγετε Πάτερ)!  Hallowed or holy be your name (ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά)!  Your kingdom come (σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου)!  Matthew, chapter 6:9, also had the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” with slightly different variations, perhaps indicating a Q source.  However, the text here in Luke is shorter than Matthew, since Matthew had 7 demands or requests of God, but Luke had only 5.  The first part of the prayer was about the glory of God himself, the Father.  Jesus simply tells them to pray this way.  The Greek word for praying προσεύχεσθε means an exchange of wishes.  Jesus opened this prayer with a call to their common “our” Father (Πάτερ ἡμῶν) who was in the heavens (ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς).  Luke did not have “Our Father who was in heaven,” since that only appeared in the later Byzantine text of Luke, but simply “Father”.  The heavenly father was a major theme throughout Matthew.  His name should be holy (Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου), just as in the Hebrew scriptures where the name of Yahweh was holy, especially Psalm 105:1-5.  His kingdom should come (ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου).  Then Matthew had the unique statement about the will of the Father should be done (γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου) here on earth (καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς), just as it is done in heaven (ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ).  Obviously following the will of God, Yahweh, was a common theme of Judaic life.  The followers of Jesus would not be exempt from following the will of their heavenly Father.  However, Luke did not mention this in his prayer to the Father, except that it was in the later Byzantine text also.  Do you know the Lord’s prayer by heart?

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The first part of the Lord’s prayer (Mt 6:9-6:10)

“Pray then in this way!

‘Our Father

In heaven!

Holy be your name!

Let your kingdom come!

Your will be done,

On earth,

As it is in heaven.’”

 

οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·

ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·

 

Matthew, as well as Luke, chapter 11:2-3, both have the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” with only slightly different versions, perhaps indicating a Q source.  The text in Luke is shorter than here, since Matthew has 7 demands of God, one of his favorite numbers.  The first part of the prayer is about the glory of God himself, the Father.  Jesus simply tells them to pray like this (οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς).  The Greek word for praying “προσεύχεσθε” means an exchange of wishes.  Jesus opened this prayer with a call to their common “our” Father (Πάτερ ἡμῶν) who is in the heavens (ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς).  The heavenly father was a major theme throughout Matthew.  His name should be holy (Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου), just as in the Hebrew scriptures where the name of Yahweh was holy, especially Psalm 105:1-5.  His kingdom should come (ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου).  His will should be done (γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου) on earth (καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς), just as it is done in heaven (ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ).  Obviously following the will of God, Yahweh, was a common theme of Judaic life.  The followers of Jesus would not be exempt from following the will of their heavenly Father.

Praise Yahweh (Ps 106:48-106:48)

“Blessed be Yahweh!

The God of Israel!

From everlasting to everlasting!

Let all the people say.

‘Amen!’

Praise Yahweh!”

This 4th book of psalms ends with a rousing Alleluia, praise to Yahweh, the Hebrew “Hallelujah.” This doxology praise is an addition to this psalm since it probably belonged at the end of Psalm 105. However, it seems a fitting end to this book of psalms with this everlasting praise to Yahweh with the great “Amen.”

Praise to Yahweh (Ps 106:1-106:3)

“Praise Yahweh!

O give thanks to Yahweh!

He is good!

His steadfast love endures forever!

Who can utter the mighty deeds of Yahweh?

Who can declare all his praise?

Happy are those

Who observe justice!

Happy are those

Who do righteousness at all times!”

Psalm 106 is a continuation of Psalm 105, but is less joyful since it points out the many problems that the Israelites had. Once again there is no title to this psalm. However, it starts out with a rousing hymn to Yahweh. Praise Yahweh or alleluia, is the Hebrew “Hallelujah.” They are to give thanks to Yahweh because he is good. His steadfast love endures forever, a theme that is repeated over and over again. Who can say what all the mighty deeds of Yahweh are? Who can declare his praise? However, the happy ones are those who observe justice and are righteous all the time.

The possession of the Promised Land (Ps 105:42-105:45)

“Yahweh remembered his holy promise.

He remembered his servant Abraham.

He brought his people out with joy.

His chosen ones were singing.

He gave them the lands of the nations.

They took possession of the wealth of the peoples.

Thus they might keep his statutes.

Thus they might observe his laws.

Praise Yahweh!”

God remembered his holy promise to Abraham. He brought his people out of Egypt singing joyously. He gave them the land of the various countries or nations. They were able to take possession of the wealth of those people. Thus they were to keep and observe the statutes and laws of Yahweh. In this rendition of the Exodus there is no mention of the crossing of the Red Sea or the difficulties in taking possession of the Promised Land. This psalm ends with a great refrain “praise Yahweh,” which is another way of saying alleluia, the Hebrew “Hallelujah.”

Moses in the desert (Ps 105:37-105:41)

“Then he brought Israel out with silver and gold.

There was no one among their tribes who stumbled.

Egypt was glad when they departed.

The dread of them had fallen upon Egypt.

He spread a cloud for a covering.

He spread a fire to give light by night.

They asked.

Then he brought quails.

He gave them food from heaven in abundance.

He opened the rock.

Then water gushed out.

It flowed through the desert like a river.”

This is quick summary of Exodus, chapters 12-17. The Israelites left Egypt with silver and gold. No one of their tribes stumbled or fell. Thus Egypt was glad that they were gone since they were afraid of what would happen next. In the desert, they had a cloud for covering during the day and a fire as light at night. They wanted food and water, so God provided quails that flew in and manna from heaven in abundance as food. Moses struck a rock so that there was water in abundance like a river in the desert.

Moses and the plagues (Ps 105:26-105:36)

“Yahweh sent his servant Moses whom he had chosen.

He sent Aaron whom he had chosen.

They performed his signs among them.

They performed miracles in the land of Ham.

He sent darkness.

He made the land dark.

They rebelled against his words.

He turned their waters into blood.

He caused their fish to die.

Their land swarmed with frogs,

Even in the chambers of their kings.

He spoke.

Then there came swarms of flies.

There were gnats throughout their country.

He gave them hail for rain.

He gave them lightning that flashed through their land.

He struck their vines.

He struck their fig trees.

He shattered the trees of their country.

He spoke.

Then the locusts came.

There were young locusts without number.

They devoured all the vegetation in their land.

They ate up the fruit of their ground.

He struck down the entire first born in their land.

He struck down the first issue of all their strength.”

This section is based on Exodus, chapters 3-10. First, Yahweh chose Moses and Aaron. Then he performed signs and miracles in the land of Ham, Egypt. He sent darkness. He turned waters into blood so that the fish died. He sent swarms of frogs, flies, and gnats throughout the country, even in the royal chambers. He sent hail and lightning instead of gentle rain. He struck down the vines, fig trees, and shattered all the trees. He then sent numerous locusts that ate all the vegetation and fruits of the land. Finally, he struck down the first born through the country, both among humans and animals. This was just about total destruction to the land of Ham, the Egyptians.