“When the landowner
About nine o’clock,
The third hour,
He saw others standing idle
In the market place.
He said to them.
‘You also go
Into the vineyard.
I will pay you
Whatever is right.’
They went out
To the vineyard.”
καὶ ἐξελθὼν περὶ τρίτην ὥραν εἶδεν ἄλλους ἑστῶτας ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ ἀργούς,
καὶ ἐκείνοις εἶπεν Ὑπάγετε καὶ ὑμεῖς εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα, καὶ ὃ ἐὰν ᾖ δίκαιον δώσω ὑμῖν.
οἱ δὲ ἀπῆλθον.
This parable is unique to Matthew. Jesus continued with this parable. About 9 AM, the third hour (καὶ ἐξελθὼν περὶ τρίτην ὥραν), this land owner saw other people standing around idle in the market place (εἶδεν ἄλλους ἑστῶτας ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ ἀργούς). He asked them if they wanted to work in his vineyard (καὶ ἐκείνοις εἶπεν Ὑπάγετε καὶ ὑμεῖς εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα). He did not promise them a specific wage for the day. He simply said that he would pay them whatever was right, just, or fair (καὶ ὃ ἐὰν ᾖ δίκαιον δώσω ὑμῖν). Some of them agreed and went out (οἱ δὲ ἀπῆλθον) into the vineyard fields to pick the grapes.
“Is this man
Is he a vessel
That no one wants?
Why is he
With his children hurled out?
Why are they cast away
In a land that they do not know?
Hear the word of Yahweh!
Thus says Yahweh.
‘Record this man as childless!
He is a man
Who shall not succeed in his days.
None of his offspring
In sitting on the throne of David,
Ruling again in Judah.’”
Yahweh was very opposed to King Coniah or King Jehoiachin or King Jeconiah (598 BCE), as he was called. King Coniah was the son of King Jehoiakim or King Eliakim (609-598 BCE). Why was he a despised broken pot? Why were he and his family thrown out of Judah? They were sent to a land that they did not know. Yahweh cried out to the land. King Coniah should be recorded as having no children, although he actually had children. He was not successful. None of his offspring would ever rule or sit on the throne of David, a pretty strong promise or curse. Thus this seems like the end of Davidic rule in Judah. He had favored the Egyptians, but now was sent to Babylon as a captive during the first captivity of 598 BCE.
“Yahweh has chosen Zion.
He has desired it for his habitation.
‘This is my resting place forever.
Here I will reside.
I have desired it.
I will abundantly bless its provisions.
I will satisfy its poor with bread.
I will clothe its priests with salvation.
Its faithful will shout for joy.
There I will cause a horn to sprout up for David.
I have prepared a lamp for my anointed one.
I will clothe his enemies with shame.
But upon him,
His crown will gleam.’”
This psalm ends with Yahweh’s promise to remain at Zion, Jerusalem. Yahweh has chosen Zion for his dwelling place. He was going to rest there at his new residence. He desired to live there. He was going to provide for the poor people there with provisions and bread. The priests would be provided with saving clothes, while the faithful would be full of joyful shouts. David would have his horn of plenty full. He would have a lamp for the anointed one, David. His enemies would be clothed in shame, while David’s crown would gleam. Thus the combination of the Ark of the Covenant, the covenant with David, and Jerusalem as the holy city are all combined into one thought here at the conclusion of this psalm.
“I hate the double-minded people.
But I love your law.
You are my hiding place.
You are my shield.
I hope in your word.
Go away from me!
Thus I may keep the commandments of my God.
Uphold me according to your promise!
Thus I may live.
Let me not be put to shame in my hope!
Hold me up!
Thus I may be safe.
I have regard for your statutes continually!
You spurn all who go astray from your statutes.
Their cunning is in vain.
All the wicked of the earth,
You count as dross.
Therefore I love your decrees.
My flesh trembles for fear of you.
I am afraid of your judgments.”
The psalmist did not like those who were double minded since he loved single minded people and the law. He used the law as a shield as he hoped in the word of God. He wanted the evildoers to go away so that he could keep the commandments of God. He wanted God’s promise to sustain his life so that he would not be put to shame. He wanted to be held safe according to the statutes of God. He knew that God spurned those who went astray from the commandments. Their cunning ways were useless and not worth anything. This psalmist, on the other hand, loved the decrees of God. He trembled with fear because he was afraid of God’s judgments. So ends this section on the fifteenth consonant letter of the Hebrew alphabet, Samek.
Teach me the way of your statutes!
I will observe it to the end.
Give me understanding!
Thus I may keep your law.
I will observe it with my whole heart.
Lead me in the path of your commandments.
I delight in it.
Turn my heart to your decrees.
Turn my heart not to gain.
Turn my eyes from looking at vanities.
Give me life in your ways.
Confirm to your servant your promise.
That is for those who fear you.
Turn away the disgrace that I dread.
Your ordinances are good.
I have longed for your precepts!
In your righteousness give me life!”
This psalmist wanted to be taught by Yahweh. He wanted to learn all about his precepts and statutes. He wanted to observe them to the end of his life. He wanted understanding so that he could observe all his commandments with his whole heart. He wanted to delight in the decrees of Yahweh. He wanted his heart to turn away from self gains or vanities. He wanted to live in the life of Yahweh by following his ways. He wanted God’s promise to be confirmed in him. He wanted to avoid disgrace because he feared God. Yahweh’s ordinances were good so that he longed to follow his precepts in order to live a good life. This section of the fifth consonant letter of the Hebrew alphabet, He, ended here.
“When Demetrius heard of these things he was distressed and said.
‘What is this that we have done?
Alexander has gotten ahead of us
In forming a friendship with the Jews
To strengthen himself.
I also will write to them words of encouragement.
I will promise them honor and gifts,
So that I may have their help.’”
King Demetrius I heard what King Alexander had done to Jonathan. He was upset. How did King Alexander get ahead of him with his friendship with the Jews? He was going to offer Jonathan more words of encouragement. He was going to promise honors and gifts so that Jonathan would be with him.
“I am going to send an angel in front of you, to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Be attentive to him and listen to his voice. Do not rebel against him. He will not pardon your transgression. For my name is in him. But if you listen attentively to his voice and do all that I say, then I will be an enemy to your enemies and a foe to your foes.”
Yahweh is going to send an angel in front of the Israelites to guard them on the way to the Promised Land. Listen to him and Yahweh will be an enemy to your enemies.
“When my angel goes in front of you, and brings you in to the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, I will blot them out. You shall not bow down to their gods, or worship them, or follow their practices. But you shall utterly demolish them and break their pillars in pieces. You shall worship Yahweh your God, and I will bless your bread and your water. I will take sickness away from among you. No one shall miscarry or be barren in your land. I will fulfill the number of your days. I will send my terror in front of you, and will throw into confusion all the people against whom you shall come. I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you. I will send the pestilence in front of you, which shall drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites from before you. I will not drive them out from before you in one year, or the land would become desolate and the wild animals would multiply against you. Little by little I will drive them out from before you, until you are increased and possess the land. I will set your borders from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the Euphrates. I will hand over to you the inhabitants of the land. You shall drive them out before you. You shall make no covenant with them or with their gods. They shall not live in your land, or they will make you sin against me. If you worship their gods, it will surely be a snare to you.”
When you get to Canaan, Yahweh will blot out all the people there. You will have water and no sickness. No one will be barren or miscarry. Yahweh was going to send his terror in front of them, like a holy war. The border of the land would be from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the Euphrates. This is a big area and a lot of people. They were to make no covenant with the inhabitants or their gods.