The Hail Mary greeting (Lk 1:28-1:28)

“The angel Gabriel

Came to her.

He said.

‘Hail!

Full of grace!

The Lord is

With you!’”

 

καὶ εἰσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτὴν εἶπεν Χαῖρε, κεχαριτωμένη, ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ.

 

Luke said that this angel Gabriel came to Mary (καὶ εἰσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτὴν).  He greeted her with the traditional Greek salutation “Hail” or “I am happy to see you” (Χαῖρε).  She was the favored one or the one full of grace (κεχαριτωμένη).  The “Lord is with you” (ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ) is an ancient Hebrew greeting found in Ruth, chapter 2:4, 2 Chronicles, chapter 15:2, Numbers, chapter 14:42, and 1 Samuel, chapter 17:37.  The impact of this angelic greeting has had a profound effect on Christian prayer life.  The famous simple popular prayer to Mary is often called the “Hail Mary” based on this passage.  “Hail Mary!  Full of grace!  the Lord is with you!”  This medieval 11th century Marian Latin prayer “Ave Maria” is the Latin translation of these Greek verses as found in the Latin Vulgate.  The second line was “full of grace” or “gratia plena” and the third line was “Dominus vobiscum,” or the “Lord be with you.”  This later phrase “Dominus vobiscum,” was and is also part of the ancient and contemporary Roman Catholic Eucharistic Mass service, as a priestly greeting to the congregation.  These verses serve as the foundational biblical statements for the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, not Jesus.

This is my body (Mk 14:22-14:22)

“While they were eating,

Jesus took

A loaf of bread.

After blessing it,

He broke it.

He gave it

To them.

He said.

‘Take!

This is my body.’”

 

Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν Λάβετε· τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου.

 

This is almost word for word in Mathew, chapter 26:26, but in Luke, chapter 22:19, it has a little more elaboration.  Paul used almost the same wording in I Corinthians, chapter 11:23-24.  In John, chapter 6:35-58, Jesus was preaching about eating the flesh of the Son of Man, the bread of life, so that he does not have a Last Supper institution narrative.  Mark said that while they were eating (Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν) the Passover meal, Jesus took a loaf of bread (λαβὼν ἄρτον).  He spoke the blessing or blessed it (εὐλογήσας).  He broke it into pieces (ἔκλασεν).  Then he gave it to them (καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς).  He said (καὶ εἶπεν) that they should take (Λάβετε) this bread, because it was his body (τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου).  There was no mention of eating it here, as in Matthew.  This Eucharistic institution narrative may already have been in this stylized form at the time of the writing of this gospel.  There was no specific indication whether this was leavened or unleavened bread, just a loaf of bread.  However, if it was a Passover meal on the feast of the Unleavened Bread, the evident assumption would be that it was unleavened or “matzah” bread.  Clearly, this institution narrative has had a profound effect on further Christian Eucharistic sacramental theological development.

This is my body (Mt 26:26-26:26)

“While they were eating,

Jesus took

A loaf of bread.

He blessed it.

He broke it.

He gave it

To the disciples.

He said.

‘Take!

Eat!

This is my body!’”

 

Ἐσθιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν λαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἄρτον καὶ εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ δοὺς τοῖς μαθηταῖς εἶπεν Λάβετε φάγετε· τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:22, but in Luke, chapter 22:19, it has a little more elaboration.  In John, chapter 6:52-58, Jesus was preaching about eating the flesh of the Son of Man.  While they were eating (Ἐσθιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν) the Passover meal, Jesus took a loaf of bread (λαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἄρτον).  He blessed it (καὶ εὐλογήσας).  He broke it into pieces (ἔκλασεν).  He gave it to the disciples (καὶ δοὺς τοῖς μαθηταῖς).  He said (εἶπεν) that they should take (Λάβετε) this bread and eat (φάγετε) it because it was his body (τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου).  This Eucharistic institution narrative may already have been in this stylized form at the time of the writing of this gospel.  There was no specific indication whether this was leavened or unleavened bread, but it was a bread loaf.  Clearly this narrative has had a profound effect on the Christian Eucharistic theological development.

What is the Bible?

The Bible is the most published book of all time.  A Latin Vulgate copy of the Bible was one of the first books printed on the original German Guttenberg Press in the fifteenth century in 1440.  The Bible has been translated into virtually every human language.  What a strange great literary work, or more precisely a series of books, that has had a profound effect on the world.  In fact, most of the great works of Western European civilization assume some biblical knowledge.  The Bible serves as the source book or “Word of God” for over two billion people living today.  Thus, the Bible is often considered “the book of books”.

Prayer to Yahweh (Ps 118:21-118:27)

“I thank you.

You have answered me.

You have become my salvation.

The stone that the builders rejected

Has become the chief cornerstone.

This is Yahweh’s doing.

It is marvelous in our eyes.

This is the day which Yahweh has made.

Let us rejoice!

Let us be glad in it!

Save us!

We beseech you!

Yahweh!

Yahweh!

We beseech your!

Give us success!

Blessed is the one

Who comes in the name of Yahweh!

We bless you from the house of Yahweh.

Yahweh is God!

He has given us light.

Bind the festal procession with branches!

Up to the horns of the altar!”

The psalmist thanked Yahweh for saving him. Then we have the famous phrases that became popular for many New Testament Christian writers, “The stone that the builders had rejected has now become the cornerstone.” There is also the saying that has been associated with the Easter celebration of Christ’s resurrection. “This is the day that the Lord has made. Let us rejoice and be glad.” Yahweh has done many marvelous things before their eyes. Thus the hosanna phrase, which means save us, also influenced the early Christian writers. They asked God to save them also. “Blessed are you who come in the name of the Lord.” As you can see, this festive psalm had a profound effect on the early followers of Jesus Christ. They blessed Yahweh from inside his house because Yahweh was truly the God of light. They were to take their processional branches and put them on the horns around the altar. There is no doubt that this was a processional psalm of thanksgiving at a festive occasion.