The short ending of Mark (Mk 16:9-16:9)

“These women

Briefly

And promptly told

Those around Peter

All that had been

Instructed to them.

Afterward,

Jesus himself

Sent out

Through them,

From east to west,

The sacred

And imperishable proclamation

Of eternal salvation.”

Πάντα δὲ τὰ παρηγγελμένα τοῖς περὶ τὸν Πέτρον συντόμως ἐξήγγειλαν. Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς καὶ ἄχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν δι’ αὐτῶν τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας

The oldest know Latin text was the Codex Bobiensis, from the Bobbio monastery in northern Italy, during the 4th or 5th century CE.  Obviously, this was a later edition, certainly not in the 1st or 2nd century after Jesus.  Nevertheless, it was an attempt to fix up the last sentence of the preceding verse or the original ending of Mark.  This was an attempt to put Peter in charge of a universal church that was present at the time of the original writing of this gospel.  This text says that the women at the tomb reported to the people around Peter briefly and promptly (τοῖς περὶ τὸν Πέτρον συντόμως ἐξήγγειλαν) all that had been instructed or commanded to them (Πάντα δὲ τὰ παρηγγελμένα) at the tomb.  Afterward, Jesus himself, without saying how, sent the followers of Jesus out from east to west (Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς καὶ ἄχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν δι’ αὐτῶν) to proclaim a sacred and imperishable eternal salvation (τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας).  This was an attempt to show why the Christians were all over the place.

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One of you will betray me (Mk 14:18-14:18)

“They took

Their places,

Reclining

At the table.

When they were

Eating,

Jesus said.

‘Truly!

I say to you!

One of you

Will betray me.

He is one

Of those eating

With me.’”

 

καὶ ἀνακειμένων αὐτῶν καὶ ἐσθιόντων ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι εἷς ἐξ ὑμῶν παραδώσει με, ὁ ἐσθίων μετ’ ἐμοῦ.

 

This is similar, almost word for word, to Matthew, chapter 26:20-21, and somewhat similar to John, chapter 13:21, but this verse is not found in Luke.  First, they all took their places reclining at the table (καὶ ἀνακειμένων αὐτῶν).  Did this mean that Peter, James, John, and Andrew had preferential seating?  While they were eating (καὶ ἐσθιόντων), Jesus gave a solemn declaration or proclamation (εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  He said that one of his 12 leading apostles would betray him (ὅτι εἷς ἐξ ὑμῶν παραδώσει με).  Differing from Matthew, Mark indicated that Jesus said that the betrayer was one of those eating with him at this very table with him (ὁ ἐσθίων μετ’ ἐμοῦ).  This seems like a strange time to bring this up.  However, Jesus was clear, he knew what was going to happen.  This may harken back to Psalm 49:9 where David complained that even some friend, whom he trusted and broke bread with, had lifted his heel against him.  Thus, this prophecy would be fulfilled when one of his beloved trusted 12 apostles betrayed him.

 

The three disciples go to the mountain (Mk 9:2-9:2)

“Six days later,

Jesus took with him

Peter,

James,

And John.

He led them up

A high mountain,

Alone by themselves.

He was transfigured

Before them.”

 

Καὶ μετὰ ἡμέρας ἓξ παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τὸν Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάνην, καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατ’ ἰδίαν μόνους. καὶ μετεμορφώθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν

 

Going to a special mountain can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:1, Luke, chapter 9:28, and here in MarkMark and Matthew are exactly the same, almost word for word, but Luke talked about 8 days and going to pray on the mountain.  Mark said that this activity took place 6 days later (Καὶ μετὰ’ ἡμέρας ἓξ), probably after the proclamation of Peter about Jesus being the Christ messiah.  Jesus took with him (παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς) Peter (τὸν Πέτρον), and the 2 sons of Zebedee, James (καὶ τὸν Ἰάκωβον) and John (καὶ Ἰωάνην).  There was no mention of Peter’s brother Andrew.  Jesus brought these 3 disciples to an unnamed high mountain (καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν), presumably near the Sea of Galilee, probably Mount Tabor in lower Galilee or Mount Hermon near Caesarea Philippi, much further north.  They were alone by themselves (κατ’ ἰδίαν μόνους), not with any of the other apostles or disciples.  Going up a high mountain was an attempt to have a special communication with God, just as Moses had done in the Old Testament.  Jesus was transfigured or transformed in front of the 3 apostles (καὶ μετεμορφώθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν).  Was this a foretaste of the resurrected Christ?

The peace of Simon (1 Macc 14:35-14:37)

“The people saw Simon’s faithfulness.

They saw the glory

That he had resolved to win for his nation.

They made him their leader and high priest.

Because he had done all these things,

Because he had been justice and loyal toward his nation,

He sought in every way to exalt his people.

In his days things prospered in his hands.

The gentiles were put out of the country.

He put out the men in the city of David in Jerusalem,

Who had built themselves a citadel

from which they used to sally forth.

They defiled the environs of the sanctuary.

They did great damage to its purity.

He settled Jews in it.

He fortified it for the safety of the country and of the city.

He built the walls of Jerusalem higher.”

This proclamation continued. Simon clearly joined his political and religious power as leader and high priest. Simon brought religious and political peace. He was faithful, just, and loyal. He exalted the people as everyone prospered. He got rid of the gentiles and those who had been in the citadel in Jerusalem. He cleaned up the sanctuary and put Jews in it and the citadel. He fortified the city with higher walls. He protected the safety of the country.

Jonathan is honored by the king of Syria (1 Macc 10:59-10:66)

“Then King Alexander wrote to Jonathan to come to meet him. So he went with pomp to Ptolemais. He met the two kings. He gave them, and their friends, silver, gold, and many gifts as he found favor with them. A group of malcontents from Israel, the renegades, gathered together against him to accuse him. However, the king paid no attention to them. The king gave orders to take off Jonathan’s garments and to clothe him in purple. They did so. The king also seated him at his side. He said to his officers.

‘Go out with him into the middle of the city.

Proclaim that no one

Is to bring charges against him about any matter.

Let no one annoy him for any reason.’

When his accusers saw the honor that was paid him, in accord with the proclamation, and saw him clothed in purple, they all fled. Thus the king honored him. He enrolled him among his chief friends. He made him general and governor of the province. Jonathan returned to Jerusalem in peace and gladness.”

The Seleucid King Alexander I was very kind to Jonathan. He invited him to meet with the Egyptian King Ptolemy. Jonathan gave them many gifts, including gold and silver. However, there were those nasty renegades, who have been around for 30-40 years, the Hellenistic leaning Jews, that accused Jonathan of many things, although it is not clear what these things were. Nevertheless, the king of Syria, King Alexander I, gave Jonathan royal robes and paraded him around the city saying that no accusations could be placed against Jonathan. He also made Jonathan a general and the governor of the province of Judea. With this, the renegades fled for their lives. Jonathan now had both religious, military, and civil authority. There was no sense in fighting city hall.

The great assembly in Jerusalem about marriages (Ezra 10:7-10:9)

“They made a proclamation throughout Judah and Jerusalem to all the returned exiles that they should assemble at Jerusalem. If anyone did not come within three days, by order of the officials and the elders, all their property should be forfeited. They themselves would be banned from the congregation of the exiles. Then all the people of Judah and Benjamin assembled at Jerusalem within the three days. It was the ninth month, on the twentieth day of the month. All the people sat in the open square before the house of God, trembling because of this matter and because of the heavy rain.”

Somehow these people in Jerusalem had the authority to issue a proclamation demanding that everyone in Judah and Jerusalem had to come for this great assembly in Jerusalem. For the people in Jerusalem this was no problem. However, if the others from Judah did not come their property would be confiscated and they would be banned from the exiled group. There is no mention of any other Israelites. This was strictly a Judah move. They all gathered on 9/20 of that year. They were trembling in the open square before the Temple because of this matter, plus the rain since this apparently was the rainy season.