They went to another village (Lk 9:56-9:56)

“Then Jesus

Went on

To another village.”

 

καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς ἑτέραν κώμην.

 

Luke had a simple solution to this problem in his unique story of Jesus on the way to Jerusalem in Samaria.  They simply went on to another Samaritan village that might be more hospitable.  Luke said that Jesus traveled on (καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν) to another village (εἰς ἑτέραν κώμην).  However, a Byzantine text had Jesus say that the Son of Man (ὁ γὰρ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) had not come to destroy human life (οὐκ ἦλθεν ψυχὰς ἀνθρώπων ἀπολέσαι), but to save it (ἀλλὰ σῶσαι).  Thus, this little adventure into Samaria that only Luke described came to an end.  Have you ever been in an area where you were not well received?

Not enough food (Lk 9:13-9:13)

“But Jesus said to them.

‘You give them

Something to eat.’

They said.

‘We have no more

Than five loaves

And two fish.

Otherwise,

We will have to go

To buy food

For all these people.’”

 

εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Δότε αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν ὑμεῖς. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Οὐκ εἰσὶν ἡμῖν πλεῖον ἢ ἄρτοι πέντε καὶ ἰχθύες δύο, εἰ μήτι πορευθέντες ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν εἰς πάντα τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον βρώματα.

 

Luke said that Jesus told the apostles and disciples (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς) to give this crowd something to eat (Δότε αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν ὑμεῖς.).  However, they responded (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν) that they only had (Οὐκ εἰσὶν ἡμῖν πλεῖον) 5 loaves (ἢ ἄρτοι πέντε) and 2 fish (καὶ ἰχθύες δύο).  Otherwise, they would have to go to buy (εἰ μήτι πορευθέντες ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν) some food (βρώματα) for all these people (εἰς πάντα τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον).  The fact that Jesus wanted to feed everyone was recorded in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:16, Mark, chapter 6:37, and John, chapter 6:5-7, plus here in Luke.  Despite the fact that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home, Jesus wanted to feed them there.  Mark indicated that Jesus answered his disciples, telling them to give the people something to eat.  Only Mark has this response of the disciples explaining the problem of buying food.  The disciples said to Jesus if they were to go to buy food, that it would cost about 200 denarii to buy enough bread for all these people to eat.  A denarius was worth one day’s pay, so that that 200 denarii would be over a half year’s pay, a large amount of money.  The disciples thought that Jesus wanted them to buy some bread for the crowd.  In John, there was a conversation between Jesus and Philip about this.  Mark indicated that Jesus told his disciples to go and see how many loaves of bread they had.  Once the apostles found out, they said to Jesus that they only had 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish.  Matthew said that despite the fact that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home, Jesus wanted to feed them there.  Jesus said to his disciples that the crowds did need not to go away, because Jesus and his disciples were going to give them something to eat.  The disciples replied to Jesus that they had practically no food to eat, only 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish.  How much food do you need to eat well?

The swine go into the lake (Lk 8:33-8:33)

“Then the demons

Came out

Of the man.

They entered

The pigs.

The swine herd

Rushed down

The steep bank

Into the lake.

They were drowned.”

 

ἐξελθόντα δὲ τὰ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσῆλθον εἰς τοὺς χοίρους, καὶ ὥρμησεν ἡ ἀγέλη κατὰ τοῦ κρημνοῦ εἰς τὴν λίμνην καὶ ἀπεπνίγη.

 

Luke said that the demons came out of that man (ἐξελθόντα δὲ τὰ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου).  They entered the pigs (εἰσῆλθον εἰς τοὺς χοίρους).  The whole swine herd rushed down the steep bank (καὶ ὥρμησεν ἡ ἀγέλη κατὰ τοῦ κρημνοῦ) into the lake (εἰς τὴν λίμνην), where they drowned (καὶ ἀπεπνίγη).  All three synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 8:32, Mark, chapter 5:13, and Luke here, have Jesus cast out the demons into the nearby herd of pigs, with slight nuances in each story.  Mark said that Jesus allowed these evil spirits to have what they wanted.  However, Jesus showed his power.  The unclean spirit demons left the demoniac and entered the herd of pigs.  This herd then rushed down a steep bank into the sea.  Mark was the only synoptic to mention the number of pigs, 2,000, who were drowned or died in the sea.  Matthew said that Jesus then accommodated these evil spirits.  He told them to leave the 2 humans and go into the swine or pigs, which the demons did.  They entered the herd of pigs, but this herd then rushed down a steep bank into the sea, where they died in the water.  There is one problem, pigs can swim, so some might have survived.  Perhaps the unfamiliarity of these Jewish authors with pigs may have led to this harsh ending.  Anyway, the pig herd, without a particular size or 2,000 of them as mentioned by Mark, with the unclean spirits, ran into the sea off a steep bank and perished.  Have you ever seen anyone or any animal drown?

The disciple and the teacher (Lk 6:40-6:40)

“A disciple

Is not above

His teacher.

But everyone

Who is fully qualified

Will be

Like his teacher.”

 

οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον· κατηρτισμένος δὲ πᾶς ἔσται ὡς ὁ διδάσκαλος αὐτοῦ.

 

Something similar can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:24-25.  Obviously, no disciple is greater than his teacher.  The student or disciple of the teacher should become like his teacher.  However, Matthew also spoke about a servant or slave, who should be like his master or lord.  Then he went into the problem of Beelzebul and evil spirits.  Luke was more honed in on the teacher and disciple aspect.  The followers of Jesus were disciples of Jesus, their teacher or rabbi.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that a disciple is not (οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς) above his teacher (ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον).  However, everyone who was fully qualified would be (κατηρτισμένος δὲ πᾶς ἔσται) like his teacher (ὡς ὁ διδάσκαλος αὐτοῦ).  Jesus had the expectation that his fully trained disciples would be like him.  Do you know of any student better than his or her teacher?

 

Eating grain on the Sabbath (Lk 6:1-6:1)

“One Sabbath,

While Jesus

Was going through

The grain fields,

His disciples plucked

Some heads of grain.

They rubbed them

In their hands.

Then they ate them.”

 

Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σπορίμων, καὶ ἔτιλλον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἤσθιον τοὺς στάχυας ψώχοντες ταῖς χερσίν.

 

Luke followed the order of Mark, chapter 2:23, while Matthew, chapter 12:1, has this incident of plucking grain on the Sabbath later in his work.  Luke said that on one Sabbath day (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ), while Jesus was going through some grain fields (διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σπορίμων), his disciples plucked some heads of grain (καὶ ἔτιλλον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ).  This is the only use of the word “σπορίμων” in all of the biblical literature.  All three synoptics used this word that meant a sown field or a grain field, so that they may have copied it from Mark.  This is also the only time that the word “ἔτιλλον, plucking” appears in its various forms by the three synoptics.  Once again, Mark may have the source for this word.  The disciples rubbed these grains in their hands (ψώχοντες ταῖς χερσίν) and ate the heads of these grains (καὶ ἤσθιον τοὺς στάχυας).  In Matthew and Luke, the disciples ended up eating the grain, but Mark did not explicitly mention that.  Matthew was the only one to say that the disciples were hungry, but that may be presumed in the other 2 accounts.  This leisurely Sabbath walk through the grain fields set up the problem of plucking grain on the Sabbath.

The ancestors of Jesus (Lk 3:24-3:24)

“Heli was

The son of Matthat,

The son of Levi,

The son of Melchi,

The son of Jannai,

The son of Joseph.”

 

τοῦ Ματθὰτ τοῦ Λευεὶ τοῦ Μελχεὶ τοῦ Ἰανναὶ τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ

 

Luke said that Jesus’ grandfather was Heli.  From then on there is a major difference in the genealogies of Matthew and Luke.  A simple solution to this problem would be to say that Luke has presented the genealogy of Mary, not Joseph.  The father of Mary was Heli.  However, that does not explain where the names came from.  The end of the genealogy of Matthew, chapter 1:15, is Joseph with his father Jacob.  Most of the people mentioned in the genealogy of Matthew could be found in other biblical works.  However, where Matthew got these last 9 generations of names was unclear.  He must have had some source, since he was so meticulous following 1 Chronicles.  Zerubbabel was Abiud’s father.  Abiud was the father of Eliakim, while he was the father of Azor.  He, in turn was the father of Zadok, whose son was Achim.  His son was Eliud.  Eliud’s son was Eleazar whose son was Matthan.  Matthan was the father of Jacob, the father of Joseph.  None of those names are here as Luke said that Heli was the son of Matthat (τοῦ Ματθὰτ), the son of Levi (τοῦ Λευεὶ), the son of Melchi (τοῦ Μελχεὶ), the son of Jannai (τοῦ Ἰανναὶ), the son of Joseph (τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ).

Jesus stays in Jerusalem (Lk 2:43-2:43)

“When the festival

Was ended,

They started

To return home.

The boy Jesus

Stayed behind

In Jerusalem.

But his parents

Did not know it.”

 

καὶ τελειωσάντων τὰς ἡμέρας, ἐν τῷ ὑποστρέφειν αὐτοὺς ὑπέμεινεν Ἰησοῦς ὁ παῖς ἐν Ἱερουσαλήμ, καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ.

 

Luke continued this story.  When the days of the festival were ended (καὶ τελειωσάντων τὰς ἡμέρας), Mary and Joseph started to return home (ἐν τῷ ὑποστρέφειν αὐτοὺς).  However, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem (ὑπέμεινεν Ἰησοῦς ὁ παῖς ἐν Ἱερουσαλήμ,), but his parents did not know it (καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ).  This poses a problem.  How alert were these parents?  On the one hand, a 12-year-old would have a little freedom, but to leave without him seems a little odd.

Quirinius of Syria (Lk 2:2-2:2)

“This was the first registration.

It was taken

When Quirinius was

Governor of Syria.”

 

αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου.

 

Luke noted that this first registration was taken (αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο) when Quirinius was governing Syria (ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου).  Quirinius was the legate of Syria from 6 CE-12 CE.  He was born 51 BCE and died at the age of 72 in 21 CE.  He did take a census or registration for tax purposes in 6 CE when he took over.  This led to the revolt of Judas the Galilean and the formation of the Jewish Zealots, who opposed Roman rule.  They opposed this census for the purposes of taxation by Quirinius, the Governor of Syria.  The one problem is that this census took place 10 years after Herod had died.  However, the birth of Jesus and John was placed during the reign of Herod.  Thus, there is a problem with this dating by Luke, who may have been confused about these historical details.

 

Peter followed Jesus (Mk 14:54-14:54)

“Peter had followed Jesus

At a distance,

Right into the courtyard

Of the high priest.

He was sitting

With the guards.

He was warming himself

At the fire.”

 

καὶ ὁ Πέτρος ἀπὸ μακρόθεν ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ ἕως ἔσω εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, καὶ ἦν συνκαθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν καὶ θερμαινόμενος πρὸς τὸ φῶς.

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:58, and Luke, chapter 22:54-55, but Peter was there to warm himself and not see what was happening.  In John, chapter 18:15-16, Peter was with another disciple, who helped him to get into the courtyard.  Here Mark said that Peter had followed Jesus (καὶ ὁ Πέτρος… ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ), but at a distance (ἀπὸ μακρόθεν).  Peter even went as far as right into the courtyard of the high priest (ἕως ἔσω εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως).  Then he sat with the guards or servants of the high priest (καὶ ἦν συνκαθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν).  Instead of being there to see what was going to happen to Jesus, as Matthew indicated, Mark said that Peter was there to warm himself (καὶ θερμαινόμενος) at the fire (πρὸς τὸ φῶς) in the courtyard.  Thus, Peter was careless in entering the courtyard and sitting with the servants and guards of the high priest, since this might be a problem for him.

The parable of the vineyard (Mk 12:1-12:1)

“Jesus began

To speak to them

In parables.

‘A man planted

A vineyard.

He put a fence

Around it.

He dug a pit

For the wine press.

He built

A watchtower.

Then he leased it

To tenants.

He went away

To another country.”

 

Καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖν. ἀμπελῶνα ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν, καὶ περιέθηκεν φραγμὸν καὶ ὤρυξεν ὑπολήνιον καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον, καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς, καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν.

 

This parable of the absentee vineyard landowner can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:33, and Luke, chapter 20:9, almost word for word.  Mark said that Jesus began to speak to them in parables or stories (Καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖν).  This story was about a male landowner who planted a vineyard (ἀμπελῶνα ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν).  He then put a fence around this vineyard (καὶ περιέθηκεν φραγμὸν).  Then he dug a wine press (καὶ ὤρυξεν ὑπολήνιον).  He even built a fortified watchtower (καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον), so that it was a very nice vineyard.  This story is reminiscent of the allegory of the vineyard from Isaiah, chapter 5:1-2.  Isaiah had a song about a friend’s fertile field.  He also dug out stones and planted choice vines.  He put a tower in the middle to look over the vineyard with a carved wine vat there also.  However, he got bad grapes instead of good grapes.  Clearly, he did not get what he expected.  However, this landowner here leased his land or rented it to farmer tenants (καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς).  Then he left that region and went away to another country (καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν).  These last two things, renting and leaving the land, will cause him a problem.