“But new wine
Must be put into
After drinking old wine
Desires new wine.
But he says.
‘The old wine
ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς βλητέον.
καὶ οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν θέλει νέον· λέγει γάρ Ὁ παλαιὸς χρηστός ἐστιν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that new wine (ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον) must be put into fresh, new, or unused wineskins (εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς βλητέον). No one, after drinking old wine (καὶ οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν), desires new wine (θέλει νέον). But he says (λέγει γάρ) that the old wine was good (Ὁ παλαιὸς χρηστός ἐστιν). Interesting enough, Luke has the first verse like Mark, chapter 2:22, and Matthew, chapter 9:17, but then he uniquely added that that old wine was good because people did not like new wine. Both Mark and Matthew said that new wine should be poured into fresh or new wineskin leather pouches. Thus, both the wine and the wineskins would be preserved. They seem to be saying not to mix up the new with the old, since they are incompatible. Here Luke said that the old was better, when most of the teaching was about the renewal of the old ways.
“Neither is new wine
Poured into old wineskins.
The skins burst.
The wine is spilled.
But new wine
Into fresh wineskins.
Both are preserved.”
οὐδὲ βάλλουσιν οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μήγε, ῥήγνυνται οἱ ἀσκοί, καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἐκχεῖται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπόλλυνται· ἀλλὰ βάλλουσιν οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς, καὶ ἀμφότεροι συντηροῦνται.
This wineskin saying is almost the same as in Mark, chapter 2:22, and Luke, chapter 5:37-38. Jesus continued with his metaphors. New wine should not be poured (οὐδὲ βάλλουσιν οἶνον νέον) into old wineskins or leather pouches (εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς), because they would crack. The old wineskins would burst open (εἰ δὲ μήγε, ῥήγνυνται οἱ ἀσκοί,). The new wine would be spilled (καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἐκχεῖται) and the skins destroyed (καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπόλλυνται). New wine should be poured (ἀλλὰ βάλλουσιν οἶνον νέον) into fresh or new wineskins leather pouches (εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς), so that both the wine and the wineskins would be preserved (καὶ ἀμφότεροι συντηροῦνται). Do not mix up the new with the old.
“Consider the generations of old.
See the generations of old.
Has anyone who trusted in the Lord been disappointed?
Has anyone persevered in the fear of the Lord been forsaken?
Has anyone who called upon him been neglected?
The Lord is compassionate.
The Lord is merciful.
He forgives sins.
He saves in time of distress.”
See what happened to your ancestors, the generations of old. Has anyone who trusted in the Lord been disappointed? Has anyone been forsaken who preserved in the fear of the Lord? Has anyone been neglected who called upon the Lord? After all, the Lord is compassionate, merciful, and forgiving. He will save you in the time of distress.
“It is always in your power
To show great strength.
Who can withstand the might of your arm?
Because the whole world is before you
Like a speck that tips the scales.
It is like a drop of morning dew
That falls upon the ground.
But you are merciful to all.
You can do all things.
You overlook people’s sins.
Thus they may repent.
You love all things that exist.
You detest none of the things
That you have made.
You would not have made anything
If you had hated it.
How would anything have endured,
If you had not willed it?
How would anything not called forth by you
Have been preserved?
You spare all things.
They are yours. O Lord!
You love the living!”
This is like a great prayer to God, who has power and strength. No one is able to withstand the might of his arm. The whole world (ὅλος ὁ κόσμος) is like a speck or a drop of morning dew before him. This is reminiscent of the folk spiritual song He’s got the Whole World in his Hands. God is also merciful to all. He overlooks people’s sins so that man can repent (ἀνθρώπων εἰς μετάνοιαν). He loves (ἀγαπᾷς) all things, but he detests none since he made everything. If God hated anything, it would not endure. If he did not will it, it would not happen. He has preserved all things, since all belongs to the Lord who loves all (πάντων) living things.
When the nations in wicked agreement
Had been put to confusion,
Recognized the righteous man.
She preserved him
Blameless before God.
She kept him strong
In the face of his compassion
For his child.”
Here there seems to be a link with the Tower of Babel and Abraham. Once again in this abridgment of Genesis, there is a leap from chapter 11 about the Tower of Babel and Abraham sacrificing his son Isaac in chapter 22. Obviously, we then have this abbreviated history of mankind that jumps from Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, to Noah and the flood, without explicitly mentioning their names. Now the jump is from the Tower of Babel to Abraham. Here it is wisdom and not God who caused the confusion as the men were building the high tower. She also recognized and preserved Abraham as the strong righteous man who was blameless before God (ἄμεμπτον Θεῷ). Just as the idea of God dominates over wisdom, she, wisdom, is the one who had compassion for the child (τέκνου) of Abraham, Isaac.
“Look on my misery!
I do not forget your law.
Plead my cause!
Give me life
According to your promise!
Salvation is far from the wicked.
They do not seek your statutes.
Great is your mercy!
Give me life
According to your justice!
Many are my persecutors.
Many are my adversaries.
Yet I do not swerve from your decrees.
I look at the faithless with disgust.
Because they do not keep your commands.
Consider how I love your precepts!
Preserve my life
According to your steadfast love!
The sum of your word is truth.
Every one of your righteous ordinances endures forever.”
This psalmist wanted to be rescued from his misery because he had not forgotten the law. He wanted a defense attorney and a redeemer. He wanted his life as Yahweh had promised. The wicked would not be saved because they did not seek Yahweh’s statutes. Yahweh’s mercy was great so that his justice would also help him. Although he had many persecutors and adversaries the psalmist did not swerve from Yahweh’s decrees. He looked at the unfaithful in disgust because they did not keep Yahweh’s commands. He, on the other hand, loved Yahweh’s precepts. He wanted his life preserved because of Yahweh’s love. The word of Yahweh is truth so that every one of his just ordinances would endure forever. So ends this section on the twentieth consonant letter of the Hebrew alphabet, Resh.
“Therefore let all
Who are faithful
Offer prayer to you.
At a time of distress,
The rush of mighty waters
Shall not reach them.
You are a hiding place for me.
You preserve me from trouble.
You surround me
With glad cries of deliverance.
The faithful ones pray to Yahweh. At the time of distress, the rush of mighty waters does not reach the faithful praying ones. Yahweh hid and preserved David from trouble. He was surrounded with glad cries of deliverance. Once again, there is a pause for a musical interlude with the Selah.
All of you!
Yahweh preserves the faithful!
However he abundantly repays the one who acts haughtily.
Let your heart take courage!
All you who wait for Yahweh!”
This psalm ended with David wanting all of the people to love Yahweh. They were the holy saints of Israel. Yahweh had preserved his faithful. On the other hand, Yahweh had repaid all those who acted haughtily. He wanted the faithful to be strong and courageous, as they waited for Yahweh to act.
“With the Almighty as their ally, Judas Maccabeus killed more than nine thousand of the enemy. They wounded and disabled most of Nicanor’s army. They forced them all to flee. They captured the money of those who had come to buy them as slaves. After pursuing them for some distance, they were obliged to return because the hour was late. It was the day before the Sabbath. For that reason they did not continue their pursuit. When they had collected the arms of the enemy and stripped them of their spoils, they kept the Sabbath. They gave great praise and thanks to the Lord, who had preserved them for that day. He allotted it to them as the beginning of mercy. After the Sabbath, they gave some of the spoils to those who had been tortured, the widows, and the orphans. They distributed the rest among themselves and their children. When they had done this, they made common supplication. They implored the merciful Lord to be wholly reconciled with his servants.”
This section is a little like the battles in 1 Maccabees, chapter 4, but not quite the same. The leader of the army is Nicanor and Gorgias. As God Almighty was on their side, Judas and his men killed more than 9,000 of the 20,000 enemy soldiers. They also wounded and disabled most of Nicanor’s army, as those who were able, fled the scene. They even got the money that was going to be used to buy Jewish slaves. They had to stop pursuing them since it was the eve of the Sabbath. They then celebrated the Sabbath with great praise and thanksgiving for the Lord’s mercy to them. Then on the day after the Sabbath, they gave some, but not all, of the spoils to those who had been tortured, as well as the widows and orphans. The rest of the money they distributed it among themselves and their children. They once again prayed to the Lord so that he might be reconciled with his servants. There is no longer any mention of religious sacrifices of any kind.