Luke said that these Jewish religious and Roman political leaders were not able or strong enough to catch him by what he said (καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσαν ἐπιλαβέσθαι αὐτοῦ ῥήματος), in the presence of the people (ἐναντίον τοῦ λαοῦ). In fact, they themselves were amazed by his answer (καὶ θαυμάσαντες ἐπὶ τῇ ἀποκρίσει αὐτοῦ). Thus, they became silent (ἐσίγησαν). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:22, and in Mark, chapter 12:17, where the Pharisees and Herodians were also amazed. Mark said that when these disciples of the Pharisees and Herodians heard this response, they were amazed or marveled at Jesus (καὶ ἐξεθαύμαζον ἐπ’ αὐτῷ). However, there was no mention of them leaving as in Matthew, or being silent as in Luke. Matthew said that when these disciples of the Pharisees heard this response (καὶ ἀκούσαντες), they were amazed or marveled at it (ἐθαύμασαν). Then, they left and went away (καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἀπῆλθαν). They had failed to trip up Jesus as was their plan. Have you ever failed to trick anyone?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus concluded this short parable story about the lost drachma coin. Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in the presence of the angels of God (οὕτως, …γίνεται χαρὰ ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων τοῦ Θεοῦ) over one sinner who repents (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι). This is another explanation and repetition of the lost sheep story. Luke had Jesus there conclude this parable about the lost sheep. with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in heaven (ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται) over one repentant sinner (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι) than over the ninety-nine righteous persons (ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις) who do not need repentance (οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας). The phraseology is shorter here. Certainly, there will be great rejoicing over one sinner who repents, just like finding the lost sheep and the lost drachma. Have you ever rejoiced over a repentant sinner?
Next Luke uniquely continued with this Jesus parable. Jesus said that when you are invited to someplace (ἀλλ’ ὅταν κληθῇς), you should go and sit down or recline at the lowest place (πορευθεὶς ἀνάπεσε εἰς τὸν ἔσχατον τόπον). Then when your host who had invited you comes and sees you (ἵνα ὅταν ἔλθῃ ὁ κεκληκώς σε) he might say to you (ἐρεῖ σοι), “Friend (Φίλε)! Move or come up higher (προσανάβηθι ἀνώτερον)!” This προσανάβηθι is another unique word of Luke. Then you will be honored or glorified (τότε ἔσται σοι δόξα) in the presence of all those (ἐνώπιον πάντων) sitting or reclining at the table with you (τῶν συνανακειμένων σοι). In other words, take the lower seat so that you would be honored when the host noticed who you were. That assumes that the host knows who you are, otherwise, why would he have invited you? Have you ever been invited some place where you hardly knew anyone?
Luke uniquely had Jesus tell this parable about being invited by someone to a wedding banquet (Ὅταν κληθῇς ὑπό τινος εἰς γάμους). He told them not to sit down or recline (μὴ κατακλιθῇς) in the place of honor (εἰς τὴν πρωτοκλισίαν). Luke was the only gospel writer who used this word κατακλιθῇς, that means to recline a table. He used it more than 5 times. Otherwise, someone more distinguished than them (μή ποτε ἐντιμότερός σου) may have been invited by their host (ᾖ κεκλημένος ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ). This is similar or based on Proverbs 6:7, where they were told not to put themselves forward in a great place before the king. It was much better to be told to come up than to be put lower in the presence of a noble person. In other words, let the host realize and show that you are important, rather than pretend that you are more important than you are. Have you ever sat at the wrong place at some banquet?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that he came to bring or cast fire or judgment (Πῦρ ἦλθον βαλεῖν) to the earth (ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν). Jesus wished (καὶ τί θέλω) that this fire had already started or kindled (εἰ ἤδη ἀνήφθη). It appeared that Jesus wanted the judgment day to come sooner. He wanted the judgment of fire to come quickly. Fire was also a symbol of the Holy Spirit, purification, or presence of his love. Jesus wanted things to get going. Are you anxious about things to start?
Luke said that this woman saw that she could not remain hidden (ἰδοῦσα δὲ ἡ γυνὴ ὅτι οὐκ ἔλαθεν). Thus, she came forward trembling (τρέμουσα ἦλθεν), as she fell down before Jesus (καὶ προσπεσοῦσα αὐτῷ). She declared in the presence of all the people (ἀπήγγειλεν ἐνώπιον παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ) why she had touched him (δι’ ἣν αἰτίαν ἥψατο αὐτοῦ). She explained how she had been immediately healed (καὶ ὡς ἰάθη παραχρῆμα). This woman coming forward can be found in Mark, chapter 5:33, but not in Matthew. Mark said that this woman knew what had been done and what happened to her. She came forward in fear and trembling. She fell down or worshipped before Jesus. She told him the whole truth. This woman, despite her fears, came forward to explain what she had done and what happened to her. Can you overcome your fears?
Luke said that those friends of the centurion, who had been sent to Jesus (οἱ πεμφθέντες), returned to the centurion’s house (καὶ ὑποστρέψαντες εἰς τὸν οἶκον). There, they found the slave in good health (εὗρον τὸν δοῦλον ὑγιαίνοντα). There is a slightly different ending to this healing of the centurion’s servant in Matthew, chapter 8:13, where Jesus talked about the failure of the sons of Abraham. He then told the centurion to go home. The healing was going to take place as he had believed that it would. Simply the word of Jesus, not his presence would cure his servant. Then Matthew indicated that at that very moment, at that very hour, the servant was healed, without the presence of Jesus. In both gospel stories, the servant was healed without Jesus being physically present to do so, due to the great faith of this non-Israelite Roman centurion person. What kind of faith do you have?
Luke indicated the words of the canticle of Simeon said that his eyes had seen the salvation (ὅτι εἶδον οἱ ὀφθαλμοί μου τὸ σωτήριόν σου) that was prepared in the presence of all the people (ὃ ἡτοίμασας κατὰ πρόσωπον πάντων τῶν λαῶν). This child was to be a light of revelation to the gentile nations (φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν). He would bring glory to the people of Israel (καὶ δόξαν λαοῦ σου Ἰσραήλ). This child was going to be the source of revelation and salvation to the gentiles and the Israelites. He would fulfill the prophecies of Deutero-Isaiah, chapters 40:5, 46:13, and 56:10, about the glory of God and the salvation of Israel. Deutero-Isaiah, chapters 42:6 and 49:6, also spoke about how Israel would be a light to all the gentile nations. There was a slight shift in the original prophecies where Israel was the source of the light for the other countries to that of the child here, as the light to all the non-Jewish countries.
Luke once again introduced an angel, but an unnamed angel, into the scene as an angelic messenger from God. Luke said that an angel of the Lord (καὶ ἄγγελος Κυρίου) appeared or stood before them (ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς). The glory of the Lord (καὶ δόξα Κυρίου) shone around them (περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς). However, the shepherds were terrified with a great fear (καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν), and rightfully so. Out of nowhere, this angel with a bright light was there before them. This glory of the Lord could be understood as perhaps the presence of God himself.
Luke then has the Angel Gabriel reveal the whole plan. Just as in Matthew, chapter 1:20, the angel told Joseph that the child conceived in Mary was from the Holy Spirit. Luke did the same here. This Angel Gabriel answered Mary (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν αὐτῇ). He said that the Holy Spirit would come over her (Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον ἐπελεύσεται ἐπὶ σέ). The power of the Most High God would overshadow or envelop her (καὶ δύναμις Ὑψίστου ἐπισκιάσει σοι). Her child would come forth or be born holy (διὸ καὶ τὸ γεννώμενον ἅγιον). He would be called the Son of God (κληθήσεται Υἱὸς Θεοῦ). This was a very theological statement uttered by the Angel Gabriel. This child, Jesus would come about because of the Holy Spirit. Elohim, the most high God, would overshadow her, the way that Yahweh had overshadowed the tent of dwelling with the covenant in Exodus, chapter 37:1-9. This presence of God in Mary would make her pregnant through the power of the Holy Spirit. The unique act of Jesus’ conception was a fully Trinitarian action involving the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit within the womb of Mary. Obviously, the Son, her son, Jesus, would be born as a holy human person, clearly and rightfully called the Son of God. This was a very developed theology of Luke, who always stressed the role of the Holy Spirit in his writings.